Chapter 17Sports History Lindsay Salus Lisa Woodrum
Sports History and the History of Sports. What’s the difference? Sports history is a subdiscipline within a larger academic field. The history of sports is the broad body of knowledge about past practices and purposes of sports.
Where Sports Originated • Europe • Rowing, baseball, football, tennis, golf, track and field, boxing, wrestling, and gymnastics. • Asia • Karate, judo, and aikido. • America • Basketball, volleyball, speedball, football, and softball.
American Sports History • Scope • Religion, politics, social mores, and economics. • Description • Studies the growth of sports by gender, race, and social class.
Ancient History • Begins with the funeral games which honored celebrities at their burials. • Simple foot races • Brutal contests ending in death • Romans • Cestuses (brass knuckles with metal spikes) • Venationes (animal contests)
Ancient History • Greeks • Track and Field • Boxing • Chariot Racing • Pankration (ultimate fighting)
Ancient History Sports were outlawed due to the Christian Religion’s values in the 5th to 9th centuries. Paganism - Worship of Zeus and other Gods Theodosius, Christian emperor of Rome terminated Olympics in 393 A.D.
Tenth to Sixteenth Centuries • Knights and Soldiers • Fencing • Boxing • Archery • Swimming • Horsemanship • Gymnastics • Tournaments • military
Tenth to Sixteenth Centuries • Renaissance • Protestant Reformation and Puritanism • Negative effects- sinful behavior • Acceptance- utilitarian (hunting, fishing, barn raising, quilting, and cooking)
1607 to 1776 • Colonial America • Animal Sports (cock fighting, bear baiting, gander pulling, rat killing) • No longer sinful • Southern weather • Tavern activities • Card playing and dancing • Socially Acceptable Sports • Horse racing, hunting, fishing, and boxing
1607 to 1776 • Boxing • Victories could result in freedom • As it became more popular, white fighters replaced the black boxers. • Kentucky Derby 1875 • 14 of 15 jockeys were black • Issac Murphy, a black jockey, won three times
Organized Sports in America • New York Knickerbockers – 1840’s • Social club composed of professional men • Emphasis on winning changed membership rules to allow more men to participate
Collegiate Sports • Started by Native American with lacrosse • British Influence • First team games were more so diversions from school • Male colleges before 1850 • wealthy
Collegiate Sports • Male Sports 1852 • Rowing, Harvard Vs. Yale • Male Sports 1859 • Baseball, Amherst Vs. Williams • Male Sports 1869 • Football, Princeton Vs. Rutgers
Collegiate Sports • Baseball Rules • Plug and Soak (hitting the runner) • Balls caught on the first bounce was considered an out • Football (soccer) • 25 men on each side • 1870’s started running with the ball after the Harvard team met Canadian McGill team • 20th century- ten yards for first down
Collegiate Sports • Administration Control • Injuries and death (football) • Academia • 1906 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
Collegiate Sports • Coaches • Students • Professionals (former athletes) • Professors
Collegiate Sports • Physical Education • NCAA was responsible for starting • 1892 Amos Alonzo Stagg was the first coach and physical educator • Late 19th Century- medical doctors were head of the department • Early 20th Century- replaced by athletic coaches • Education extended beyond health to skills, sportsmanship, and knowledge of the sport
Collegiate Sports • Women’s Sports- Mid 19th Century • Upper class females • Croquet, archery, and tennis • Only accepted if considered social affairs • Noncompetitive • Late 1890’s • Bicycle
Collegiate Sports • Women’s Sports • Began 40 years later than males • 19th Century, became educational curriculum • Physical Education • Health and social interaction
Collegiate Sports • Women’s Physical Education • 1860’s – bowling, boating, ice skating, archery, swimming, and horseback riding • 1890’s – tennis, baseball, golf, track and field, field hockey, volleyball, and basketball • Basketball was the first intense game • Senda Berenson of Smith College and Clara G. Baer of Sophie Newcomb College
Collegiate Sports • Varsity Athletics • Women were not allowed to participate • 1920’s to 1950’s – play days and sport days were promoted • 1920’s and 1930’s – collegiate sports grew • Track and Field and softball were considered too masculine for women • Basketball, softball, and track and field were adopted by working class females • Opponents opinions eliminated highly competitive athletic programs
Collegiate Sports Title IX in 1972 – no discrimination based on sex Mid 1907 – funds for women’s sports 1960’s – “A sport for every girl and every girl in a sport” 1971 – Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) was formed but was shut down 10 years later because they joined the NCAA
Professional Sports • Amateurs and Professionals • What’s the difference? $$$$ • Baseball • Mid-19th Century, first sign of professional sports • Boxing • Organized professional sports in USA
Professional Sports • Boxing • Slaves • Whites got involved when money got involved • Jack Johnson • Trailing Tommy Burns and eventually became the first black heavyweight champion of the world (1908) • Joe Louis • 1938 – heavyweight opportunity
Professional Sports • Baseball • First professional team sport • 1869 - Cincinnati Redstockings • 1857 - National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP, an amateur league) • Washington Nationals vs. Redstockings • 1867 – Cincinnati lost 53- 10 • 1869 – every player on the Redstockings was paid
Professional Sports • 1871, NABBP changed to the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP) • 1876 – National League of Professional Baseball Clubs (NLPBC) • The power shifted from the players to the owners • More than just a pastime… an enterprise
Professional Sports • Jim Crow Laws – black and white players could not be on the same team • 1880’s African Americans formed their own league • 1920’s marked its success • Kansas City Monarchs and the Homestead Grays from Western Pennsylvania • 1930’s formation of the National and American leagues
Professional Sports • African American leagues never reached the same financial stability as the white leagues. • Produced amazing players • Rube Foster, Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson, and Cool Papa Bell… Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Walter Johnson, and Dizzy Dean
Professional Sports 1903 American League was apart of organized baseball 1897-1947 National and American Leagues were only made up of white players Jackie Robinson joined the Dodgers
Jackie Robinson 1952
Satchel Paige 1948 joined the Cleveland Indians at the age of 42, baseball’s oldest rookie
Professional Sports 1968 created divisions Revoked the reverse clause in the 1980’s 1995 expanded the divisions Allowing American vs. National League competition prior to the World Series
Professional Sports • 1943 Philip Wrigley and colleagues formed the All-American Girls’ Professional Baseball League (AAGPBL) • Began with 4 teams with softball-like rules • Expansion • 10 teams, longer base paths, pitching mound was moved back, and pitching overhand
Professional Sports • AAGPBL lasted until 1954 (almost 10 years after WWII ended) • 1995 – semiprofessional women’s baseball league was formed, Silver Bullets • There’s No Crying In Baseball! • http://youtube.com/watch?v=kC6s3QL35fk
Professional Sports Football was the next sport to become professional College coaches were afraid players would skip and go straight into professional leagues College football brought in a lot of money
Professional Sports • 1895 football became professional • 1902 Canton and Massillion of Ohio first all professional teams • Backed independently by wealthy men • No organizational structure • Corruption • Coaches paid their players to throw games • Gambling affected game outcomes
Professional Sports • 1920 - American Professional Football Association (APFA) • Two principles to please the colleges • 1. Stay away from players until college eligibility expired • Broken by United States Football League-drafted Hershel Walker from University of Georgia after his junior year • 2. Teams would not steal players
Professional Sports 1922 APFA changed to the National Football League (NFL) 1950 divided into American and National Conferences 1966 – Super Bowl
Professional Sports • 1890s – Basketball for white males • 1898 National Basketball League • 5-6 years later it folded and did not reform again until 1925 • 1937 National Basketball League formed again • 1949 merged with the Basketball Association of America to become the National Basketball Association (NBA) • 1967 American Basketball Association was formed • 1976 merged with NBA
Professional Sports • Prior to 1990s the only professional basketball team for women was the Redheads (1930s) • Overseas after college if women wanted to pursue professional play • 1996 two professional women’s leagues formed • American Basketball League (8 teams, 2 conferences) • Women’s National Basketball Association (summer of 1997)
Professional Sports 1970s - Title IX allowed for more opportunity for females in schools but professionally it was still a man’s world. Professional volleyball and football leagues were formed but failed.
Professional Sports 1920s- cash prizes for golf and tennis champions 1916 Professional Golf Association of America (PGA, for men only) 1950 Ladies Professional Golf Association
Professional Sports 1926 tennis became professional 1967 World Championship Tennis circuit and competition was allowed at Wimbledon 1970 tennis war among men and women players with organizations 1973 the war ended with women purses raised almost equal to men
Professional Sports Tennis and golf have been dominated by white players 1950s Althea Gibson, 1970s Arthur Ashe, and 2000 Venus Williams won single titles at Wimbledon Later 1990s Tiger Woods
Prejudice and Discrimination • Many ethnic and religious groups suffered • African Americans • Native Americans • Polish • Irish • Italians • Catholics • Jews • Women • Lower-class white Americans
Prejudice and Discrimination Jackie Robinson is celebrated for breaking the color barrier in professional baseball even though it was not the first racial barrier broken in professional sports. Moses Fleetwood Walker played professional baseball in Toronto before the Jim Crow Laws ended his career in 1889. Two African American football players were drafted by professional teams before Jackie Robinson was hired.
Focus on Science Research can be quantitative or qualitative Quantitative research was the long technique most respected in the academic world as scientific because it involves running tests, collecting data, and then statistically analyzing the data. Qualitative research is now recognized for its ability to offer greater interpretation of the results. It also requires clearer goals before the study begins, takes longer to complete, and forces the researcher to draw conclusions that cannot be supported with statistical data.
Steps in Historical Research • Selecting the Research Topic • The first step in beginning a study is to define a problem you wish to explore • You then outline the purpose of your study and make a list of questions you wish to answer • The topic selected should be significant enough to support the “so what” question
Framing the Study This helps to determine whether the project is feasible and defines the direction in which the topic should be pursued It includes locating sources, limiting the time and space of the study, and forming an outline for the way the research should be approached