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Youth Sports

Youth Sports

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Youth Sports

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  1. Youth Sports Chapter 14

  2. Objectives • Describe specific categories of youth sports children participate in and account for the explosion in the number of children participating in organized youth sport programs • Describe the 10 most important reasons children give for participating in youth sports • Explain competence motivation theory and describe how this theory influences children’s participation in youth sports • Explain the 11 most important reasons children stop playing a particular sport • Describe both the medical and psychological issues surrounding youth sports participation

  3. Objectives • Describe characteristics of the volunteer coaching profession and the controversial issues regarding the education and certification of coaches • Describe the role of parental education in curbing youth sport violence toward parents, officials, coaches, and players • Explain the Bill of Rights for young athletes • Describe the recommendations regarding implementation of youth sport programs in the 21st century

  4. Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program?“to have fun” “Winning the game” ranks near the bottom of the list*.Surprised?*#8 out of 10: Wankel and Kriesel, 1985 #10 out of 10 Athletic Footwear Association, 1990

  5. Youth Sports • Athletic endeavors that provide children and youth with a systematic sequence of practices and contests • 39 million youth participate in nonschool sponsored programs • 7 million youth participate in interscholastic sports

  6. Youth Sports • Why are so many children involved? • Trend toward earlier participation • A 4-year-old holds the age group record for running a marathon • Increase in female participation • The number of interscholastic sports for girls has increased from 14 (1971) to 41 (1999)

  7. Youth Sports • Why are so many children involved? • Children are beginning to get involved in what used to be considered nontraditional sport activities • Tennis, cycling, bowling, ice hockey, cross-country skiing • Rule changes • Even the youngest child can experience success

  8. Youth Sports • Why are so many children involved? • There is an increased in the number of disabled children who participate • American Wheelchair Bowling Association • Handicapped Scuba Association • National Foundation of Wheelchair Tennis • National Wheelchair Softball Association • Special Olympics • United States Quad Rugby Association

  9. Youth Sports • Benefits of youth sport activities • Academic performance improvement • Physical fitness • Self-esteem enhancement • Deterrent to negative behavior

  10. Where Children Participate in Sports

  11. Most Popular Interscholastic Sports

  12. Why Children Participate in Sports • To have fun • To improve skills • To be with friends • To be part of a team • To experience excitement • To receive awards • To win • To become physically fit(Wankel & Kreisel, 1985)

  13. Why Children Participate in Sports • Wankel and Kreisel (1985) • Emphasis should be on involvement, skill development, and enjoyment of doing the skills • According to the children, winning and receiving rewards for playing are of secondary importance

  14. Why Children Participate in Sports

  15. Participation: Competence Motivation Theory • Harter’s Model • Individuals are motivated to be successful in various achievement areas such as sports, academics, or human relationships • When performance is successful, there is a positive effect on the individual • When performance is not successful, the individual will most likely quit

  16. Participation: Competence Motivation Theory • Younger children evaluate their physical competence based upon game outcome and parental feedback • Older children and adolescents use social comparisons and evaluation by peers • Children become more accurate in personal assessment of physical competence as they age

  17. Why Children Drop Out of Sports • Contrary to popular belief, children do not drop out of sports because of stress • More often, withdrawing from a sport is due to interpersonal problems • Pursue other leisure activities • Researchers report that a majority of “dropouts” reenter the same or new sport • Caution should be used when using the term “sport dropout”

  18. Why Children Drop Out of Sports

  19. Why Children Drop Out of Sports “I would play again if”

  20. Children want to have fun and want practices to be more fun!

  21. Sport Participation: Controversies • Medical Issues • Football • Baseball • Soccer • Downhill skiing • In-line skating • Overuse injuries • Are youth sports injuries avoidable? • Nutrition • Making weight

  22. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football • Football is classified as a contact/collision sport • Injury rate increases as players mature in age and grade level • 65% of the injuries occur in offensive players • However overall injury rate for youth football is low

  23. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football • Overall injury rate in youth football • Age range = 8-15 yr • Weight range = 22.5-67.5 kg • n = 5,128 • Injury rate = 5.0% • # injuries = 257

  24. Most prone injury sites Hand/wrist Knee Shoulder/humerus Most common injuries Fractures Epiphyseal fractures Sprains Contusions Strains Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football

  25. Injury rates by position Quarterback/running back Defensive lineman Offensive lineman Linebacker Kickoff/punt return Defensive back Receivers Players who were restricted for more than 21 days Kickoff/punt return Quarterback/running back Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football

  26. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Baseball • Relatively safe sport for youth • Two major injuries: chest and eye injuries • Chest trauma • Commotio cordis – batter struck in chest with pitched ball; catcher struck by foul tipped ball • Occurs more often in boys under 16 yr • 2-4 deaths reported each year

  27. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Baseball • Eye injuries • Softer ball used because of the concern for commotio cordis • Fewer commotio cordis injuries result • However, physicians are concerned that a softer ball will allow more of the ball to enter the eye orbit, resulting in a greater number of eye injuries

  28. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer • Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport • One of America’s fastest growing sports • Studies suggest that youth soccer is a relatively safe activity • Most injuries are from person-to-person contact

  29. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer • Classical study (Nilsson & Roaas, 1978) • Examined injury rate from 1975-1977 in two tournaments (Norway Cup) • Ages: 11-18 yr • n= 25,000 youth • 2987 matches • 1343 injuries • Girls had a higher injury rate • Reason - lower skill development and training • Greater injury rate during final rounds • However, most injuries are minor

  30. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer • Heading the ball in soccer can result in • Headaches • 49% of players complained after heading a ball • Mild to severe deficits in attention • Problems with concentration • Mild to severe deficits in memory

  31. Common injury site Thigh Ankle Foot Torso Head & neck Type of injury Contusions Muscle strains Sprains Fractures Heat illness Concussions Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer Boys and girls; 480 games; 74,000 playing hours Total injuries = 179 or 23.8 for every 10,000 playing hours

  32. Cause of injury Person-to person contact 43% Repetitive overload 20.4% Contact with ground 17.5% Contact with goal post, etc. 6.5% Effect of injury Missed one game 38.5% Missed all remaining games 19.3% Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer Boys and girls; 480 games; 74,000 playing hours; Total injuries = 179 or 23.8 for every 10,000 playing hours

  33. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer • How can soccer injuries be reduced? • Closer officiating • Pregame warnings for playing tactics (take downs, hacking) • Coaching within the spirit of the rules • Protective padding for players and goal posts • Remove all sideline objects (chairs, water coolers, etc.)

  34. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing • Classified as a limited contact/impact sport • Injury occurs due to contact with ground or stationary object • Contact usually occurs at a high velocity • Girls are more prone to injury than boys • Injury rate increases up to age 13 yr of age • Injury rate levels off between age 13 and 15 yr

  35. Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing • Out of 3456 participants, 423 injuries reported • Most of the injuries occurred in 12 and 13 year olds • Common injuries • 51% ~ sprains • 11.1% ~ fractures Garrick & Requa, 1979)

  36. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ In-line Skating • Fastest growing recreational sport in the US • In-line roller hockey is replacing ice hockey in many areas • Excessive speed is the main cause for injury (speeds of 30 mph are not uncommon) • 35% of all falls result in injury • 60% of all injury occurs in youth between 10 and 14 years of age

  37. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ In-line Skating • Prevention of injuries • Players should wear all protective gear available to them • Wrist guards • Elbow pads • Knee pads • Helmet • Often, children do not use protective equipment because discomfort, cost, and unsightly appearance

  38. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries • Youth are specializing in sport at earlier ages which involves year round training • Overuse injuries occur as a result of placing the body under repeated stress over a long period of time • Common sites: epiphyseal plates, cartilage of the apophyses, articular cartilage, stress fractures

  39. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries • Traction apophyses injuries • Osgood-Schlatter disease • Insertion of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle • Sever’s disease • Insertion of the Achilles tendon into the calcaneous • Both injuries occur because the skeleton is growing faster than soft tissue elongation

  40. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries • Little League elbow • Repeated stress to the medial and lateral structures of the elbow • Rule changes are designed to protect the young pitcher • T-ball, ball is not pitched to the batter • Some leagues no longer allow the curve ball • Limit the number of innings/wk that a young player may pitch

  41. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries • Significant increase in Runner’s knee injuries • Inappropriate tracking of the kneecap

  42. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Avoidable? • Make sure young athletes have been properly conditioned • Avoid overtraining • Provide qualified adult supervision • Change rules to create a safe environment • Match competitors according to body size and weight

  43. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Avoidable? • Require use of appropriate safety equipment • Do not allow an injured child to return to competition until the injury has been fully rehabilitated • Do not allow children to partake in questionable practices designed to create a competitive edge • Use coaches who are certified • National Center for Sports Safety • Online certification course

  44. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Nutrition • Child’s appetite should dictate need • The practice of fasting (wrestling) and quick weight gain (football) should be avoided • Vitamin supplements are not necessary when the young athlete is eating a balanced meal

  45. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Nutrition • Vitamin A poisoning • Vitamin A and E are not readily excreted from the body • Fat soluble • Parents placed their child on large doses of Vitamin A believing this would give him a competitive edge in tennis

  46. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Making Weight • Some adults have used unacceptable practices to give their child a competitive edge • Exercising in a sauna • Not letting child drink water • Not allowing child to swallow spit • Administering diuretics • Exercising in a rubber suit • Fasting

  47. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Making Weight • Dangers of rapid dehydration • Cells, urine output, blood volume and sweating mechanisms do not function properly • 3% weight loss will decrease physical performance • 5% weight loss can lead to heat exhaustion • 7% weight loss can lead to hallucinations • 10% weight loss can lead to heat stroke and circulatory collapse

  48. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Making Weight • Dangers of fasting • Carried to an extreme can result in death • True story • A young gymnast was told by a judge that if she did not lose weight she would never make the Olympic team • At 15 years of age, she weighed 90 lb; 4’11” tall • For six years this young gymnast ate very little and eventually died of multiple organ failure • She weighed 60 lb

  49. Sport Participation: Controversies • Psychological issues • Stress • Unpleasant emotional state • Reducing competitive stress • Are young athletes being exposed to too much competitive stress?

  50. Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Stress Model depicting the development of stress and potential behavioral outcomes Consequences Withdraw and try a new sport; Withdraw permanently Situation Individual views outcome as important Emotional Response Unfavorable appraisal leads to physiological and cognitive stress Appraisal Individual evaluates his/her ability to meet the demands of the situation Passer, 1982