A BYOD moment Eid -al- Fitr Where is this location in the world? What is happening in this picture? What are the pillars in the background used for?. CHAPTER 15 THE MUSLIM EMPIRES 1450-1800. Chapter 15 pages 484-507. A BYOD MOMENT What is known as the wine of Islam?
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A BYOD moment • Eid-al-Fitr • Where is this location in the world? • What is happening in this picture? • What are the pillars in the background used for? CHAPTER 15 THE MUSLIM EMPIRES 1450-1800 Chapter 15 pages 484-507
A BYOD MOMENT • What is known as the wine of Islam? • What is happening in this picture ? • What is the purpose of this building? How could new weapons technology affect an empire’s growth? Section 1 “The Ottoman Empire” pages 484-489
I. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE • A. Rise of the Ottoman Turks • Late 13th century Turks under Osman began to build a power in Anatolian Pen. – begins the Ottoman dynasty. • 1. Expansion of the empire • Expanded westward controlling not only land but important straits along the way. 14th century into the Balkans. Built a strong military by developing an elite guard called Janissaries. Mastered knowledge of firearms. Defeated Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo.
2. The Byzantine Empire • Continue to expand in western Asia, North Africa and Europe. Mehmed II moved to end the BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Laid siege to Constantinople and eventually captured this city. • 3. Western Asia and Africa • Constantinople became the new capital. Now took control of most major Islam cities so leader became known as a Caliph. • 4. Expansion into Europe • Suleiman I advanced in Belgrade, Hungary, and into Austria. At same time were moving into western Mediterranean until Spanish destroyed fleet at Lepanto.
B. The Ottoman World • Religious tolerance and unique architectural designs were among the Ottoman strengths and contributions. 1. The Nature of Ottoman Rule 2. Ottoman empire was a “gunpowder empire.” At head system was the SULTAN, who Supreme authority. Was hereditary. 3. The Imperial Sultans As expand the status and prestige of the sultan increased. Each sultan had a private domain called the HAREM. Could have up to 4 wives. Had a Grand Vizier (chief minister) who carried the main burdens of the state, led meetings of the council. Empire was divided into provinces and districts, each governed by official.
4. Religion in the Ottoman World Were Sunni Muslims. Sultans also Caliphs. Generally tolerant of non-Muslims. They paid a tax and were allowed to practice their religion. 5. Architecture and the Arts Sultans were enthusiastic patrons of the arts. Greatest contribution of the empire to world art was the architecture, like the mosques. SINAN, was the greatest builder, responsible for 81 mosques. 16thcentury witnessed the flourishing of textiles and rugs. 6. Society and the role of Women Subject divided by occupation. Ultimate ownership of all land resided with the sultan. Outside the ruling elite, merchants were the most privileged class. Women had it a littler better in this society than other Muslim areas.
C. Problems in the Ottoman Empire Reached high point under Suleyman I. 1. Changes in Government After Suleyman sultans became less involved in government. Local officials grew corrupt and taxes rose. 2. Cultural Changes Sign of change within the empire was the exchange of Western and Ottoman ideas and customs. Officials and merchants began to imitate the habits and lifestyles of Europeans.
BYD TIME • -Riza –i-Abbasi is what or who? • How does this piece of are relate the first question? • What region is this painting from? • what is another popular trade commodity from this region? What factors help unify an empire? Section 2 “The Rule of the Safavids” pages 492-495
II. THE RULE OF THE SAFAVIDS A. The Safavid Empire Persia into Asia fell into anarchy. 16th century the Safavidstook control. Were Shia Muslims. 1. The Safavid Dynasty Founded by Esma’il who called himself the shah (king) of a new Persian state. Were faced with the problem of integrating various Turkish peoples with the settled Persian speaking population of the urban areas. After much conflict an empire was set up with ESFAHAN as its capital. This city became on the world’s largest cities with a population over a million. 2. Glory and Decline Under Shah Abbas the Safavids reached the high point of their glory. He strengthened the army with the latest weapons. After his death the empire gradually lost its vigor. Intellectual freedom marked the high point of the empire. 18th century they were invaded and Persia sank into a long period of political and social anarchy.
B. Life Under the Safavids Was a mixed society 1. Role of the Shah Shahs declared Shia Islam to be the state religion. Shahs firmly controlled the power of the landed aristocracy. 2. Economy and Trade Shah played an active part in trade and manufacturing activity. Goods traveled by horse or camel caravan. They found trade with Europeans difficult due to their location. 3. Safavid Culture Knowledge of science, medicine and mathematics under the Safavids was equal to that of other societies. Silk weaving and carpet weaving flourished.
A BYOD Moment • Who is buried in this Mausoleum? • Where is this Mausoleum located? • Who was it originally built for? How does art reflect a country or an empire’s culture? Section 3 “The Grandeur of the Monguls” pages 498-503
III. THE GRANDEUR OF THE MOGULS A. The Mogul Dynasty 1. Rise of the Moguls Were not natives of India. Founder was BABUR; who had family connections to Tamerlane and Genghis Khan. Had small forces when he came to India but had latest weapons. HE captured Delhi and established his empire there. 2. The Reign of Akbar He set out to extend his power and brought Mogul rule to most of India. He used heavy artillery. Were successful negotiators. His conquests created the greatest Indian empire since the Mauryan dynasty. Was a collection of semi-independent states held together by the power of the emperor. He did tolerate other religions. Akbar was also tolerant in his administration of the government. Overall the Akbar era was a time of progress, at least by the standards of the day. Trade and manufacturing grew. Very prosperous in foreign trade.
3. Decline of the Moguls Jahangir came after Akbar. He continued to strengthen the central government, at least in the beginning. Gradually his power slipped, especially when his wife NurJahan began to influence him. He was very good at foreign affairs but not able to handle domestic issues, like empty treasury. Eventually his son Aurangzeb took over. Very controversial ruler in India. Empire reached greatest physical size. He attempted to eliminate what he considered to be India’s social evils. He forbade suttee and put a stop to levying of illegal taxes. He tried to stop gambling and drinking as well. These policies caused Hindus to become upset.
B. Life in Mogul India Moguls were foreigners in India and were Muslims ruling in Hindu India. 1. Society and the Role of Women Women had long played an active role in mogul tribal society. At same time they did place Hindu restrictions of many women. Like the practice of isolating women. Mogul era saw the emergence of a wealthy nobility and a prosperous merchant class. 2. Mogul Culture Brought Persian and Indian influences in a new and beautiful architectural style. This style if best symbolized in the Tajmahal, which Shah Juhan built in Agra. Is widely considered to be the most beautiful building in India. Another artistic achievement was in painting. Blended two culture (Persians and Indian.) Humans in action and imitated European art forms.
C. Europeans Come to India Arrival of British brought the decline of the mogul empire. British success in India attracted rivals, like the French. The French established own forts and trade areas. They even attacked British areas and if not for sir Robert Clive Britain would have been in major trouble. He restricted the French to small forts and a few small territories on the southeastern coast. Britain’s rises to power in India was not a story of constant success. Many east India company officials combined arrogance with incompetence. The offended Indian allies and local population. Late 18th century moved inland and brought great riches to individual British merchants. British were in India to stay.