Chapter 8The Muslim Empires Section 1 The Ottoman Empire
Rise of the Ottoman Turks • The Ottoman dynasty began in the late 13th century when Turks under leader Osman were given land in the NW corner of the Anatolian Peninsula by the Seljuk Turks in return for help fighting the Mongols.
Rise of the Ottoman Turks • Ottomans expanded westward to control Bosporus and the Dardanelles. • These two straits, separated by the Sea of Marmara, connect the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea.
Rise of the Ottoman Turks • Expanded into the Balkans in the 14th century. • Leaders became known as sultan and built a strong military. • 1st developed an elite guard called janissaries, local Christians who converted to Islam and served as foot soldiers or administrators.
Rise of the Ottoman Turks • With the use of new technology, firearms, Ottoman control spread. • Around 1400 they advanced north. • Defeated the Serbs and annexed Bulgaria.
Expansion of the Empire • Over the next 300 years, Ottoman rule expanded into Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe.
Under Mehmet II, the Ottomans began to end the Byzantine Empire. Mehmet laid siege to Constantinople in 1453. Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople • After 2 months, the Ottomans breached the walls and sacked the city for 3 days. • Constantinople (later named Istanbul) dominated the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula.
1514-1517 – took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia, including Muslim holy cities of Jerusalem, Makkah, and Madinah. Declared himself Muhammad’s successor. Sultan Selim I
Western Asia & Africa • Ottomans administered conquered regions through local rulers. • Central gov’t appointed officials, called pashas, who collected taxes, kept law and order, & were responsible for the sultan’s court.
Europe • Ottomans tried to complete their conquest, however, the Hungarians stopped them at the Danube Valley. • The reign of Suleyman I, beginning in 1520, led to more attacks on Europe.
Europe • Ottomans seized Belgrade and advanced to Vienna, where they were defeated (1529). • *Don’t Write* They extended their power into the western Mediterranean until Spain defeated them at the Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Europe • 1683 – Ottomans laid siege to Vienna. • They lost, and never threatened central Europe again.
Nature of Ottoman Rule • The O.E. is a.k.a. the “gunpowder empire” • Based on mastering the technology of firearms. • Sultan was the head of the O.E. • It was a hereditary position. • Sultan was the political & military leader. • Sons often battled for succession.
Nature of Ottoman Rule • Empire adopted a centralized administrative system, and sultan became isolated in his palace. • Commissioners recruited a special class of slaves, usually Christian boys. • This is known as the Devshirme (boy levy). • Converted to Islam and were made pages.
Nature of Ottoman Rule • Topkapi (“iron gate”) Palace was the center of sultan’s power. • Built by Mehmet II. • Sultan’s private domain was called the harem (“sacred palace”). • Sultan often had several wives.
Nature of Ottoman Rule • When son became sultan, mother became the queen mother. She had great power. • Sultan controlled through a council that met 4 days a week. • Chief minister – grand vizier – led the meeting. • Sultan sat behind a screen & indicated his desire to the grand vizier.
Nature of Ottoman Rule • Empire was divided into provinces & districts, each governed by officials who collected taxes & supplied armies for the area. • Sultan gave land to senior officials.
Religion in the Ottoman World • Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. • Rulers were responsible for guidance and maintaining Islamic law. • Sultans gave their religious duties to religious advisors called the ulema. • Ulema administered the legal system & Muslim schools.
Religion in the Ottoman World • Islamic law & customs were applied to all Muslims in the empire. • Rulers were tolerant of non-Muslims. • Non-Muslims paid a special tax, but were free to practice religion. • Most Europeans remained Christian.
Ottoman Society • Subjects divided in 4 occupational groups- • Peasants • Artisans • Merchants • Pastoral peoples
Ottoman Society • State leased land to peasants. • Artisans organized into guilds that provided: • Financial services • Social security • Trained its members
Ottoman Society • Merchants were privileged. • They were exempt from taxes & were wealthy. • Pastoral people were separated by their own laws & regulations.
Women in Society • Ottoman system gave more rights to women than most Islamic countries. • Due to the Turkish view of women being equal to men. • Could own property & inherit property. • Could not be forced to marry & could sometimes divorce. • Few served as senior officials.
Problems in the Ottoman Empire • O.E. reached its high point under Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566). • Problems became visible in 1699, when the empire began to lose its territory.
Problems ctd… • After the death of Suleyman: • Sultans became less involved in gov’t • Ministers exercised more power. • Senior positions were assigned to children of elite groups • The bureaucracy lost touch with rural areas, causing local officials to become corrupt. • Taxes rose as wars depleted the treasury.
*Don’t write this is just interesting material* • Cafes began to appear in major cities. • Sultans outlawed drinking coffee and smoking tobacco. • If subjects were caught in these or other immoral or illegal acts, they were executed.
Ottoman Art • Sultans supported the arts. • The production of pottery, rugs, silk, other textiles, jewelry, arms, and armor all flourished. • Greatest accomplishment was in architecture, especially the mosques.
Sinan was the greatest architect. Built 81 mosques. A dome topped each mosque & framed by 4 towers (minarets). Ottoman Art
Ottoman Art • Silk industry resurfaced under the Ottomans. • It boasted distinctive designs & colors from different regions.