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Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires

Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires

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Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires

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  1. Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires

  2. Ottoman Empire • Turks- groups from central Asia, spread west 9th-11th centuries • Seljuk Turks took over Abbasid caliphate, enemies of Byzantines • Ottoman Turks- Osman rewarded with land after fighting Mongols, Anatolian Peninsula • Geographic advantage- Byzantines, Muslims • Expansion- Balkans, Slavs

  3. Ottoman Empire • Janissaries- elite troops, allegiance to sultan • Use of new weapons, firearms • Mehmet II – Constantinople 1453 • Continued expansion- Safavids, Mamluks (Meso and Egypt) North Africa • Emperor Selim claimed caliph • Locals allowed to govern, trade, piracy

  4. Ottoman Empire • Suleyman the Magnificent- advancement into Europe (Danube, Hungary, Austria), control of western Med Sea • Europeans could not ignore and treated Turks like other countries- alliances, trade • New try to advance met by alliance of Europeans, defeat (Vienna) • Slow decline of Ottoman power

  5. Ottoman Rule • Sultan- supreme authority • Learned/adapted Byzantine and Persian customs • Problems with succession • Topkapi Palace- Istanbul, center of power • Harem- elite group, queen mother • Not all about sex, political power

  6. Ottoman Rule • Imperial council- vizier • Bureaucracy- merit • Similar to fief holdings, feudalism • Sunni Muslims- generally tolerant of others unless seen as a threat • Non- Muslims paid head tax, conversions • Millet- religious group, responsible for behavior, taxation, education, justice, welfare

  7. Ottoman Rule • Women- more freedoms than elsewhere, divorce, property • Decline came after Suleyman- son Selim II (“drunken sultan”) • Internal dissention, corruption, constant war decreased treasury • Influence of Western culture, materialism

  8. Ottoman Art • Pottery, rugs, silk, arms, jewelry • Architecture most important • Open floor plan (Hagia Sophia), domes, minarets, windows • Decorations- mosaics, bright colors, geometric designs • Rugs, silks

  9. Safavids • After Tamerlane (Mongol) decline- chaos • Founded by Shah Ismail- ancestor to Ali • Controlled Iraq, Iran, Baghdad • Conflict with Ottoman Turks • Copied Janissaries, military from Ottomans • Abbas the Great- strengthen, stabilize dynasty

  10. Safavids • Internal problems- increase in power of Shi’ias, decrease in religious orthodoxy • Women lost rights, “behind the veil” • Others took advantage of weaknesses and attacked, rulers fled • Brief restoration- battle with Mughals in India • Mixed population of people, used religion to unify

  11. Safavids • Shah- political and religious leader, Shi’a power • Used foreigners in gov’t to avoid competition • Directly involved in economy- check up on locals, no direct contact with Europe, limited trade • Capital- Isfahan, architecture, blue tiles • Silk, painting

  12. Mughals • Unification of subcontinent of India- under Islamic foreigners • Influence of Europeans- decline • Founder was Babul (Mongol descendent) • Weapons, cavalry- northern India • Son chased out but aided by Safavids to return to power • Akbar- peak of power, “gunpowder empire”

  13. Mughals • Akbar- took steps to reconcile different religions, tolerance • Married to Hindu, learned of Christianity, classical Indian ideas, hostility to Islam • Divine Faith- combination of religions with control by emperor • Not embraced by many people, Hindus given more power/jobs

  14. Mughals • Tolerance in legal system- Hindus not made to pay head tax, follow own laws • Overall time of peace and prosperity • Strong father- weak son • Brief resurgance- Shah Jahan • Taj Mahal- built in memory of wife, expensive • Aurangzeb- controversial (ex. elimination of sati)

  15. Mughals • Reversed religious tolerance, revolts • Portuguese monopoly of trade • England- remained present as Mughal power declined, able to exert influence- Ft William • Dutch/French attracted to trade in area • Power of British East India company- conflict with gov’t, major step in English dominance

  16. Mughals • Money made was sent back to England and weakened local trade • British slowly took over and enforced own rules and laws • Locals unable to mount significant challenge to British • Real influence of Mughals on life of Indians is hard to tell- women, Hindus

  17. Mughals • Time of synthesis- Islamic, Persian, native Indian art and culture- architecture • Taj Mahal, Red Fort • Painting- now on paper • Imitation of European art • Printing not available until end of Mughals • Persian- poetry, language