Chapter 21: The Muslim Empires • Ms. Ford • AP World History • University High School
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders • 1243 CE- Seljuk Turks fell to the Mongols. • 1350’s- Ottomans began building an empire based in Anatolia (Turkey). • Ottomans rapidly expanded their territories but bypassed Constantinople until 1453. • 1453- Ottomans conquered Constantinople with 100,000 soldiers under Mehmed II. • Extended empire into Syria, Egypt, north Africa, Hungary. • Powerful navy and army.
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders • Janissaries- conscripted adolescent boys that made up the bulk of infantry • Legal slaves • Schooling and conversion to Islam • Janissaries controlled the artillery and firearms so they were the most powerful component of the military. • Eventually tried to translate military service into political influence.
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders • Ottoman rulers were absolute monarchs (sultans). • Ottoman conquest often meant effective administration and tax relief for areas annexed to the empire. • As the empire grew, sultans grew more and more distant from their subjects. • Administration was carried out by a grand vizier. • Islamic principles of political succession.
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders • Ottomans restored Constantinople. • Saint Sophia cathedral was converted into a mosque. • Each Sultan tried to beautify the capital. • Sultans and administrators built mansion, religious schools, hospitals, rest houses. • Great bazaars in Constantinople. • Merchant and artisan classes. • Persian, Arabic, Turkish
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders • Empire lasted for over 600 years (1299-1923). • Ottomans were able to fight off any rivals. • Empire was too large to maintain. • The effectiveness of the administration and bureaucracy diminished. • Local officials squeezed peasants and laborers for taxes and services. • Peasant uprisings and abandonment of lands
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders • Ottoman internal military problems led them to fall behind in improvements to military. • 1571- Battle of Lepanto • Between Ottomans and Spanish • Fleet was crushed, but rebuilt • Lost all control of eastern Mediterranean • Portuguese naval victories in Indian Ocean • Silver from Peru and Mexico led to inflation • Ottomans fell behind in technology
The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids • The Safavids rose from Turkic nomadic groups after Mongol invasions. • Safavids were Shi’a Muslims. • Sail al-Din began a militant campaign to purify and reform Islam • Spread Islam throughout Turkish tribes. • Isma’il won victories and was declared shah (emperor) in Tabriz. • Conflict with Ottoman Empire. • Battle of Caldiran • Ottoman victory
The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids • 1534 CE- Tahmasp I won the throne. • Turkic chiefs used as Warrior nobles • 1587 CE- Abbas I, empire reached its height of strength and prosperity • Used youths captured in Russia, educated and converted to Islam, in the army • Used Europeans for assistance against Ottomans • Army of 40,000 troops
The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids • Safavid used Turkish as their language • Elaborate palaces for shahs • Mullahs were used as mosque officials and pray leaders. • Bulk of Iranian population was converted to Shi’ism • Abbas I wanted his empire to be a center for international trade and Islamic culture • Set up capital in Isfahan • Special building projects
The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids • Societies were dominated by warrior aristocracies. • Shahs promoted public works projects and promoted trade. • Women faced legal and social disadvantages. • Wives and concubines exerted influences over shahs. • Most women lived unenviable lives.
The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids • Safavids reigned from 1501-1736. • The collapse of the Safavid empire was rapid. • Imperial administration and weak rulers were responsible for the decline. • 1722- Afghani tribes took over Isfahan. • Nadir Khan Afshar proclaimed himself shah in 1736.
The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India • The Mughal empire was founded by Babur, who traced his lineage back to Mongol khan and a Turkic conqueror Timur. • Babur’s conquests had only to do with gaining riches and not with religion. • Babur was a good military strategist who had a taste for art and music. • Babur left the Mughal empire to his son Humayan.
The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India • Akbar took over after the death of his father Humayan. • Akbar had a vision for the empire and wanted to united all of India. • He extended the empire throughout north and central India. • Worked with Hindus throughout India. • Invented a new faith: Din-i-Ilahi • Used warrior aristocrats to run villages.
The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India • Akbar pushed for social changes. • He encouraged widow remarriage, discouraged child marriages, prohibited sati. • Mughal India reached its peak at the end of Akbar’s reign. • However, India had fallen behind in invention and sciences. • India was a major overseas destination for traders.
Jahangir (1605-1627) and Shah Jahan (1627-1658) reigned after the death of Akbar. • Both retained tolerance toward Hindus, kept alliances, and fought wars against enemies. • Both great patrons of the arts. • Mughal architecture blends Persian and Hindu traditions. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India
The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India • Both rulers left the administration to subordinates. • Both had wives who took control of decisions. • Women became more secluded. • Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan’s son, seized power. • Determined to extend Mughal control. • Wanted to purify Indian Islam.
The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India • By the time of his death, Aurangzeb conquered most of the subcontinent. • Drained treasury. • Long wars occupied his time and he failed to complete administrative tasks and reforms. • His religious policies weakened internal alliances. • He left the empire weak and unstable. • Sikhs became an anti-Muslim threat.