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Military Decision-Making Process
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Military Decision-Making Process

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  1. Military Decision-Making Process An Overview... 1

  2. Objective ACTION: Describe the military decision making process (MDMP) CONDITIONS: Given student handout, FM 101-5 ch. 5 and FM 34-8-2 ch. 3 STANDARD: Demonstrate an understanding of MDMP IAW FM 101-5 ch. 5 and FM 34-8-2 ch. 3 2

  3. Safety Reqs: None Risk: IV, E, Low Environmental Considerations: None 3

  4. Commanders make battlefield decisions. As intelligence NCOs, we must understand the factors that are involved in the military decision making process (MDMP) that we can make informed decisions, thereby saving lives of service members. Over the next hour we will discuss the factors involved in MDMP and try to simplify the process as much as possible. 4

  5. MODEL VS. MDMP Six Step Model RECOGNIZE & DEFINE PROBLEM RECEIVE THE MISSION GATHER FACTS MAKE ASSUMPTIONS MISSION ANALYSIS DEVELOP POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS COURSE OF ACTION DEVELOPMENT ANALYZE EACH SOLUTION COURSE OF ACTION ANALYSIS (WARGAME) COMPARE SOLUTIONS COURSE OF ACTION COMPARISON MDMP FM 101-5 AUG 96 SELECT BEST SOLUTION COURSE OF ACTION APPROVAL 5

  6. MDMP • A systematic approach to problem solving. • A commander and staff checklist to ensure key elements of tactical planning are not missed. • Established and proven analytical process. • Tool that assists the commander and staff in developing a plan. • Helps the commander and staff examine a battlefield situation and reach logical decisions. • Applies thoroughness, clarity, sound judgment, logic, and professional knowledge to reach a decision. 6

  7. 7 Steps of MDMP 1. Receipt of Mission 2. Mission Analysis 3. COA Development 4. COA Analysis (Wargaming) 5. COA Comparison 6. COA Approval 7. Orders Production 7

  8. Military Decision-Making Process WARNORD TO STAFF STEP 1 INITIAL CDR’s GUIDANCE RECEIVE THE MISSION MSN FROM HIGHER ASSESSMENT OF AVAILABLE TIME WARNORD RECON? 1 8

  9. Warning Order Receipt of Mission • Gather tools on receipt of Warning Order • Map • SOP’s • FM’s • Staff Estimates • Initial Assessment • Time Available / time needed • IPB • Light requirements • Status of staff 9

  10. Military Decision-Making Process IPB: MCOO, SIT TEMPS, HVTL, CRITICAL EVENTS, & EVENT TEMP INITIAL CCIRs MISSION FROM HIGHER TIME ANALYSIS CDR’s INITIAL GUIDANCE STEP 2 INITIAL R&S PLAN MISSION ANALYSIS RESTATED MISSION MISSION ANALYSIS BRIEF CDR’s INTENT & INITIAL PLANNING GUIDANCE WARNORD 10

  11. 17 Steps of MA • Analyze Higher’s Order • Initial IPB • Specified, Implied, Mission Essential Tasks • Review Available Assets • Determine Constraints • Facts and Assumptions 11

  12. 17 Steps of MA (Cont') • Risk Assessment • Initial CCIR • Initial R&S Plan • Plan use of time • Restated Mission • MA briefing 12

  13. 17 Steps of MA (Cont') • Approve Restated Mission • Develop Initial Cdr’s Intent • Issue Cdr’s Guidance • Issue a Warning Order • Review Facts and Assumptions 13

  14. Military Decision-Making Process COA STATEMENTS & SKETCHES RESTATED MISSION CDR’s INTENT & INITIAL PLANNING GUIDANCE INITIAL CCIRs IPB PRODUCTS STEP 3 COA BRIEF (OPTIONAL) COA DEVELOPMENT PRODUCE ONLY VIABLE COAs 14

  15. Military Decision-Making Process DST & BOS SYNCH MATRIX (PER WAR GAME) APPROVED COA STATEMENTS & SKETCHES UPDATED CCIRs UPDATED IPB PRODUCTS STEP 4 TGTING PRODUCTS: HPTL, AGM, TSS (PER WAR GAME) COA ANALYSIS (WAR GAME) REFINED COAs (FCOA & ECOA) REFINED EVENT TEMP FCOAs + & - (BASED ON EVALUATION CRITERIA) 15

  16. DECISION MATRIX STEP 5 COA COMPARISON Military Decision-Making Process FCOAs + & - (BASED ON EVALUATION CRITERIA) DECISION BRIEFING 16

  17. Military Decision-Making Process CDR APPROVES STAFF RECOMMENDATION ISSUE WARNORD ADVANCE TO STEP #7 STEP 6 DECISION BRIEF COA APPROVAL CDR DISAPPROVES STAFF RECOMMENDATION BACK TO STEP # 4 17

  18. Military Decision-Making Process OPORD STEP 7 APPROVED COA FINALIZED CCIRs PRODUCE THE ORDERS R&S ANNEX 18

  19. Full MDMP • Process occurs at all levels • Staff must apply thoroughness, clarity, sound judgment, logic, and professional knowledge to make MDMP work. • More deliberate and detailed war-game • More preparation and rehearsal time 19

  20. QUESTIONS? MDMP MDMP MDMP 20

  21. MDMP(TIME-CONSTRAINED) 21

  22. When time-constrained MDMP is done • Severely limited time < 10 hours for • Staff not available • Single COA • Extensive involvement by the commander 22

  23. Only One Process • Staff must first master the full MDMP • MDMP is a sound and proven process • Omitting steps is not a solution • Keys to success: • Anticipation / Organization / Prior preparation 23

  24. Four Primary Techniques • Increase CDR’s involvement • CDR makes decisions during process • No detailed briefings after each step • CDR’s guidance is more directive • Limits staff options • Focuses staff on CDR’s priorities 25

  25. Four Primary Techniques • CDR limits COAs • Saves the most time • Developed and War-gamed • One COA in extreme cases • End-state is one Viable COA 26

  26. Four Primary Techniques • Maximize Parallel Planning • Most critical • Warning orders • Verbal now • Share all available info with subordinates ASAP (IPB) 27

  27. Advantages • Maximizes use of available time • Allows subordinates more time • Focuses staff on specific/directive guidance • Adaptable to rapidly changing sit • Allows commander to compensate for lack of or inexperienced staff 28

  28. Disadvantages • Limits staff flexibility and initiative • Does not explore all friendly options • May result in oral or frag order • Increases risk of overlooking key factor or significantly better option • Decreased coord and synch 29

  29. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Doctrine SCIENCE OF WAR Tactics Experience Techniques Judgement Procedures Methodology Intuition ART OF WAR INTENT MISSION CONCEPT OF OPERATION VISION 30

  30. QUESTIONS ?? 31

  31. Q Upon receipt of the mission from higher headquarters, what is one of the areas that the staff needs to review prior to mission analysis? A: Maps, SOPs , FMs and any existing estimates Q: How many steps are in Mission Analysis? A: There are 17 steps. Q: What products are developed in Mission Analysis? A: MCOO, Situation Templates, HVTL, Event Template, initial R&S plan Q: What is another name for COA Analysis, and what products are created in this step? A: COA Analysis is called Wargaming. The products produced are DST, BOS Sync Matrix, HPTL Q: What techniques are involved in time-constraint MDMP? Four? A: Increased CDR involvement, Direct CDR guidance, CDR limit number of COAs, Maximize parallel planning 32

  32. MDMP Summary • 7 Steps • Time Constrained 33