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History of Educational Technology. A 20 th Century Movement. Christina M. Yepez. 1905 ~ School Museums. The use of media for instructional purposes via school museums. Museums utilized slides, films, charts and stereographs, such as the

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history of educational technology

History of Educational Technology

A 20th Century Movement

Christina M. Yepez

1905 school museums
1905 ~ School Museums
  • The use of media for instructional purposes via school museums.
  • Museums utilized slides, films, charts and stereographs, such as the
  • one pictured below, for visual instruction (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) .
  • E.L. Thorndike – early advocate of behavioral approach & educational
  • measurement (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011).
1910 1923 visual instruction movement and instructional films
1910 – 1923 ~ Visual Instruction Movementand Instructional Films
  • An increased interest in using media in the school for learning
  • (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
  • Jean Piaget forms his theories of experience-based learning & his
  • Stages of Intellectual Development.
  • Mary Ward & Frederich Burk establish San Francisco Normal School
  • and use self-instructional materials.
  • Lev Vygotsky – Theories of Developmental Psychology & development
  • of language (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011).
1924 1930 s audiovisual instruction movement instructional video
1924 – 1930’s ~ Audiovisual Instruction Movement & Instructional Video
  • Technological advancements in radio broad-
  • casting, sound motion pictures & sound
  • recordings bring growth during this period.
  • Ralph W. Taylor – 8 Year Study - recognition of the
  • formative evaluation process.
  • Charles F. Hoban Sr.,Charles F. Hoban Jr., and
  • Stanley B. Zissmanwrite Visualizing the
  • Curriculum which thoroughly stated the value of
  • audiovisual material & presented a hierarchy
  • of media (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
  • Sidney Pressey invents testing/teaching machine (Bray, McGovern &
  • Pedroni, 2011).
1940 s world war ii
1940’s ~ World War II
  • U.S. Army Air Force used audiovisual devices for training purposes.
  • Produced more than 400 training films & 600 filmstrips.
  • Over 4 million showings of training films to U.S. personnel.
  • Other audiovisual materials used included overhead projectors, slide
  • projectors, audio equipment and simulators & training devices.
  • Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagen asked to develop training
  • material for the military (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
1950 s theories of communication
1950’s ~ Theories of Communication

Interest focused on communication models and placed importance on

Considering all elements of the communication process and not just the

medium as was done in the audio visual field (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) .

1950 s instructional television
1950’s ~ Instructional Television
  • Increased interest in television as a medium for delivering instruction.
  • Federal Communications Commission sets aside 242 television channels for educational purposes.
  • Ford Foundation provided funding in the amount of $ 170 million on educational television (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
  • B.F. Skinner – publishes “The Science of of Learning & the Art of Teaching”, demonstrates a machine to teach arithmetic using an instructional program (Bray, McGovern & Pedroni, 2011).
1950 1970 s computers for instructional purposes
1950 – 1970’s ~ Computers for Instructional Purposes
  • Researchers at IBM used computers for computer-assisted instruction-
  • CAI in the 1950’s.
  • IBM researchers develop the first CAI author language and one of the
  • first CAI programs used in public schools.
  • Gordon Pask – adaptive teaching machines made us of computer tech-
  • nology.
  • Richard Atkinson/Patrick Suppers – work in the 1960’s led to early
  • applications of CAI at public schools & universities.
  • Development of CAI systems such as PLATO &
  • TICCIT in the 1960’s & early 1970’s
  • (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
1960 s cognitive revolution
1960’s ~ Cognitive Revolution
  • Robert Mayer published “Preparing Instructional Objectives” – the use
  • of performance objectives.
  • Robert Gagne published “The Conditions of Learning” – conditions of
  • learning, 5 domains of learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual
  • skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes and cognitive strategies.
  • Robert Glaser – criterion-referenced measures.
  • Michael Scriven – formative & summative evaluation
  • (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
1980 1990 s computers for instructional purposes
1980 – 1990’s ~ Computers for Instructional Purposes
  • Interest in using computers for instructional purposes grew as more than
  • 40% were being used in elementary schools while over 75 % were being
  • used at the secondary schools in the U.S.
  • Existing associations of professionals were redefined: DAVI became AECT;
  • publication of Journal of instructional development
  • However, computer impact is short-lived in the 90’s for instructional
  • purposes and were used instead for drill and practice
  • in the elementary setting & for work processing at
  • the secondary level (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
2000 present recent developments
2000 – Present ~ Recent Developments
  • In 2008, more than 30% of training in business & industry
  • conducted via technology & 24% of that training was
  • delivered online.
  • In 2010, more than 50% of college faculty utilize
  • social media for instruction via online videos, podcasts,
  • blogs and wikis.
  • In the fall of 2008, more than 4.6 million students
  • were enrolled in online courses via higher education institutions in the U.S.
  • In the U.S., 45 states have an online school initiative and 24 of those states
  • have statewide full-time online schools.
  • 57% of public secondary schools provide online learning for students
  • (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
2000 present recent developments1
2000 – Present ~ Recent Developments
  • U.S. Military uses technology to deliver the technology-based instruction
  • online.
  • Use of the Internet has been viewed as a means of providing instruction
  • and information to widely dispersed learners at a low cost.
  • Distance education in higher education is a low-cost alternative enabling
  • students to attend school who, due to other factors including a job, family
  • responsibility or geographic location, would otherwise be unable to attend.
  • Internet allows for increased interactive capabilities via online instructional
  • activities between learners and instructional content, learners and instructor
  • and among learners (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
references
References

Bray, B., McGovern, C., & Pedroni, L. (2011, January 20). Instructional development timeline. Retrieved from http://my-ecoach.com/project.php?id=12152&project_step=80007

Reiser, R., & Dempsey, J. (2012). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Prentice Hall.