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History of Educational Technology. Where Are We Going & Where Have We Been. Educational Technology. Objectives: To identify events and devices of the past that contributed to the technological revolution.

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history of educational technology

History of Educational Technology

Where Are We Going &

Where Have We Been

educational technology
Educational Technology

Objectives:

  • To identify events and devices of the past that contributed to the technological revolution.
  • To examine the organizations and their viewpoints that have shaped technology use in the classroom today.
  • To prepare for the future in educational technology by analyzing current trends and advances.
educational technology3
Educational Technology

“Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devices … most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.”

(Muffoletto, 1994)

TEA

educational technology4
Educational Technology

The history of “Educational technology … can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.”

(Paul Saettler, 1990)

history of computers
History of “Computers”
  • Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC
  • Calculators---1600s
  • Punched Card Devices---1800s
  • First Electronic Computers---1940s
  • Mainframes---1950s
  • Minicomputers---1960s
  • Microcomputers---1970s
  • Microcomputer Systems---1980s
  • Internet---1990s
slide6

Ancient ComputingHistory

The Abacus

Mechanical aid used for counting and making quick calculations.

Still in use around

the world.

Find out more about the Abacus in Resources.

slide7

Early Computing History

Blaise Pascal

Invented the first mechanical calculator.

The Pascalineused cogs and gears to solve math equations.

slide8

Mechanical Calculators

  • First “programmable”machine.
  • Used punched cards (binary instructions) to automate weaving loom.
  • Punched cards were a staple of early and modern computer programming.

Joseph Jacquard

slide9

Electronic Computer Systems

First Generation:1943-1956

  • Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits.
  • Used punch cards to input and externally store data.
  • Up to 4K of memory.
  • Programming in machine language and assembly language.
  • Required a compiler.
slide10

First Generation: 1943-1956

Electronic Numerical Integrator

and Calculator (ENIAC)

World’s first electronic digital computer.

Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department.

Check out the ENIAC exhibit.

slide11

Second Generation: 1957-1964

  • Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs.
  • Up to 32K of memory.
  • Programming in computer languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL.

1956 IBM 350 RAMAC

Visit the Computing History Timeline in Resources.

slide12

Third Generation: 1965-1971

  • Used integrated circuits.
  • Up to 3 million bytes of memory.
  • Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.
slide13

Fourth Generation: 1972-Now

Microcomputer Revolution Begins.

  • 1971, Intel develops 4004, the first microprocessor chip.
  • Altair sold in 1975, the first personal computer. It is a kit that must be assembled.
  • Apple Computer is formed in 1976 and sells 50 Apple I.
  • Advances increase memory size, storage space, and processing speeds.
slide14

Fourth Generation: 1972-Now

  • Personal computers or PCs.
  • Usually cost about $2,000 or less.
  • Process over 1 billion operations per second.
  • “Stand-alone” or connected to other computers as a network system.

Microcomputers

TEA

slide15

1990’s Connecting the World

  • Tim Berners-Lee
  • Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was born.
slide16

1990’s Connecting the World

Marc Andreessen

  • An original developer of Mosaic, the first browser software able to read HTML.
  • Co-founder of Netscape Communications.
the 21st century
The 21st Century
  • Technologies of the Future
  • Advanced robotics commonplace
  • Smart houses
  • Wearable computers
  • Holodeck virtual reality
  • Truly individualized education

Check out Dave Moursund’s view of education in the year 2015, one of the Resources.

the 21st century18
The 21st Century
  • Only recently focused on computers.
  • Internet current primary trend.
    • Communication with colleagues.
    • Lesson plan preparation.
    • Student resources.
    • Access research and best practices for teaching.

05:34.0

TEA

educational technology19
Educational Technology

Source information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue

educational technology20
Educational Technology

Our Definition:

“A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.” (M. D. Roblyer, 2000)

educational technology21
Educational Technology

Has technology changed how and what we teach?

educational technology22
Educational Technology

Two trends of today’s society:

  • Explosive increase in number and type of technology resources available.
  • Dramatic decrease in total cost of ownership (TCO).

TEA

educational technology23
Educational Technology
  • CPU: Intel 4.77 MHz 8088
  • Memory: 64K
  • Storage: Single-sided, 160K 5” floppy disk drive
  • Display: 12 inch monochrome
  • Price: $2880.00

IBM unveils first PC in 1981.

Read about

IBM Through the Yearsin Resources.

educational technology24
Educational Technology

Change in educational philosophy of what constitutes basic skills

  • No longer just three R’s
  • “Learning to learn” skills essential
  • Lifelong learning

TEA

four different views
Four Different Views
  • Association for Educational Communications & Technology (AECT)
  • International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)
  • International Technology Education Association (ITEA)
  • International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
four different views26
Four Different Views

AECT

  • Audiovisual Media Communications.
  • Begun in 1923.
  • Initially centered on radio.
  • Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and educational television.
  • Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and visual communications.
four different views27
Four Different Views

AECT

  • “Branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process.”

(Saettler, 1990, p. 9)

  • Publications:
    • TechTrends
    • Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology

Visit the AECT web site from Resources.

four different views28
Four Different Views

ISPI

  • Instructional systems approach based on Behaviorist theories
  • “Systematic approach to designing, developing, and delivering instruction matched to carefully identified needs.”

(Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997)

four different views29
Four Different Views
  • Publications:
    • Performance Improvement Journal
    • Performance Improvement Quarterly

ISPI

Explore ISPI resources at the ISPI web site.

four different views30
Four Different Views

ITEA

  • Industry trainers and vocational teachers.
  • Schools should prepare students for work force Learning about technology as used in the “real world” is essential.
four different views31
Four Different Views

ITEA

  • Includes robotics, manufacturing systems, computer-assisted design (CAD).
  • Publications:
    • The Technology Teacher
    • Technology and Children
    • The Journal of Technology Education

Find out more at the ITEA web site.

four different views32
Four Different Views

ISTE

  • Primary focus encompassed both instructional and support applications of computers.
  • Begun by trainers and educators who predicted that computers would revolutionize education.
  • Influenced by technical personnel, such as programmers and systems analysts.
four different views33
Four Different Views

ISTE

  • National Educational Technology Standards for Students and Teachers (NETS)
  • Publications:
    • Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly The Computing Teacher)
    • Journal of Research on Computing in Education

ISTE’s website is one of the Resources.

modern ed tech history
Modern Ed Tech History
  • First instructional use of computers was as a flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in 1950.

Mainframe Computer Systems

modern ed tech history35
Modern Ed Tech History

Mainframe Computer Systems

  • First use in public schools taught New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.
modern ed tech history36
Modern Ed Tech History

Mainframe Computer Systems

  • Federal funds supported many large-scale projects in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in schools, colleges, and universities through the middle of 1970’s.
modern ed tech history37
Modern Ed Tech History

Mainframe Computer Systems

  • Stanford University – first multimedia learning station, Course writer
  • Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO)
  • BYU – Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT)
modern ed tech history38
Modern Ed Tech History

Mainframe Computer Systems

Designed to support personalizedmastery learning

  • Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) - University of Pittsburgh
  • Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) - American Institutes of Research
modern ed tech history39
Modern Ed Tech History

National Education Computing Conference (NECC)

  • Created by mainframe programming enthusiasts from universities nationwide.
  • First conference held in1979.
  • Today is the largest educational technology conference in U.S. with attendance of 10,000+ people.
modern ed tech history40
Modern Ed Tech History
  • Introduced in late 1970’s.
  • Adopted by public school systems during 1980’s.
    • Apple II
    • Commodore PET
    • Radio Shack TRS - 80

Microcomputers in Education

modern ed tech history41
Modern Ed Tech History
  • Early courseware developed for mainframes were provided by:
    • Large hardware manufacturers
    • Software systems companies
    • University development projects
  • New microcomputer software market driven primarily by educators.

Software

modern ed tech history42
Modern Ed Tech History
  • Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC)
    • Initially largest provider of educational software.
    • Funded by National Science Foundation.
  • MicroSift, EPIE
    • Provided courseware evaluations.

Software

modern ed tech history43
Modern Ed Tech History

Software

  • Authoring systems
    • Response to educators quest for input into design of educational software.
    • Allowed educators to develop their own courseware.

TEA

15:05.0

modern ed tech history44

TEA

Modern Ed Tech History

Software

  • Authoring systems
    • Required extensive expertise.
    • Extended time commitment.
    • Expanded work investment.
modern ed tech history45
Modern Ed Tech History

Computer Literacy

  • Originally defined as programming skills and tools such as word processing.
  • Today’s world can only agree that the term refers to skills that are constantly changing.

15:45.0

modern ed tech history46
Modern Ed Tech History

Seymour Papert

  • Educational theorist mentored by Jean Piaget.
  • Developed programming language for young children based on constructivist theory of education.
  • Raised national consciousness about potential of technology to change the educational system.

16:25.0

modern ed tech history47
Modern Ed Tech History

The Internet and the WWW

Biggest challenge for the public educational system has been how to prepare schools physically and train teachers effectively for its use in the classroom.

16:50.0

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what we ve learned
What We’ve Learned
  • Computer literacy or knowledge of computer applications is a moving target.
  • Teaching students technical skills for today is valuable.
  • More important are “learning to learn” tools for tomorrow and years to come.

17:20.0

what we ve learned49
What We’ve Learned
  • Computer-based materials are just one component of resources available to educational system.
  • Integration of technology as a tool to advance learning in the content areas adds to the effectiveness of other resources and teacher created activities.

18:00.0

what we ve learned50
What We’ve Learned

Development of technology materials and integration strategies is time intensive and should not be a classroom teacher’s primary responsibility – You’ve got enough to do!

18:20.0

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what we ve learned51
What We’ve Learned
  • Educators must keep pace with technological advances.
  • But often times technology changes faster than the educational environment.
  • Business and Industry must do it’s part in providing economical technology solutions.

18:40.0

what we ve learned52
What We’ve Learned
  • Teachers will always be necessary!
  • Definition of learning environments are changing.
  • Identity of classrooms must change.

19:03.0

TEA

what we ve learned53
What We’ve Learned
  • Our models of effective instruction must change too!
  • Educators must be more than:
    • Sage on the Stage
    • Guide on the Side

19:40.0

what we ve learned54
What We’ve Learned

Vet in the Net

Today’s teacher must be willing to be:

  • A participating learner in the classroom.
  • One who will take the same risks and not always have the right answer.
  • A veteran learner in a network of learners called the classroom.

20:10.0