EDC&I 510History of Educational Technology July 5, 2005 The Foundations of Distance Learning and Technology In Higher Education
Topics for Today • Your Questions • Steve Kerr • Cliff’s Brief Introduction to the Topic • Nika’s Discussion Of Bill’s “Learning From The Web” • Jerrod’s Discussion of Noble’s “Digital Diploma Mills” • Cliff Wraps Up The Class
What Did We Miss in Chapter 10 • Shay did I good job of describing some of Skinner’s antecedents. • Examples of programmed learning. • Computer Assisted Learning and Page Turners.
What Did We Miss in Chapter 11 • Wilfred Wundt: “the act of introspection is unworthy of introspection.” • Emergence of Cognitive Science • Human Information Processing • Cognitive Learning Strategies
What Did We Miss in Chapter 17 • Intelligence and Aptitude • Aptitude Treatment Interaction • The Motivational Impact of Computers • Kulik & Kulik
Important Points in Chapter 16 • Is there an “Information Society”? • That is, are we any different now than in the past when new technologies were introduced? • Has Educational Television impacted education? • Have Programmed Instruction and Computer-Assisted Instruction impacted education?
Basic Definition of Distance Learning Instruction that takes place with students and lecturers separated by place and sometimes by time. Technology is used as a substitute for face to face interaction.
digital diploma mills • students don’t want it • we paid big money, we want wetware • thinly-veiled marketing and market research tools • teachers don’t want it • once the material is digitized, the teacher is irrelevant • lose control over their content • commoditization of education • in the disguise of a more democratic, worldly education • letting corporations run the show is letting the fox into the henhouse
questions, questions . . . • is the web-delivery of university education different than film or television delivery of education in the past? • Cuban: “Perhaps learning is largely opportunistic, spontaneous and unpredictable.” (Teachers and Machines, 91) • Firstly, do we agree? • Secondly, what is the implication for online classes, can computers mediate this?
questions, questions . . . • Question to class: Is an online education appropriate for elementary and secondary students? Why/why not? • Question to class: Would our undergraduate degrees be as valuable to us if it were earned completely online? • What did you learn on-campus that you didn’t learn through materials? Can the computer mediate that? • Question to class: Should the university be a corporation-free zone?
why is admin thirsty for online ed? • BusinessWeek article • net profit margin • “Used for evaluating how well a company is doing. Computed by dividing Net profit (either before or after taxes) by sales. The higher the net profit margin the better.” (investordictionary.com) • Boeing = 3.4% net profit margin • Starbucks = 7.4% • University of Phoenix Online = 15.8%* • (before stock was rolled into Apollo, its parent, ~2004)
Why Take a Distance Learning Class? • You get to study at home and don’t have to commute. • You get to study when you want; so you have more control over your schedule. • Great for the fully employed. • You get to choose from courses that match your learning style.
Why the Interest in Distance Learning? • Increased number of students. • Possibility of increased revenues. • Possibility of reducing costs. • Competition among Universities for students. • Everyone else is doing it. • Emerging technologies allow it to be done well.
Anti-Distance Learning • Many on UW Campus, though this number is diminishing. • Economic Doomsayers. • Fathom • U.S. Open University • Masters Institute • David Noble
Noble’s Criticisms • The commercialization, automation and the commoditization of higher education. • The loss of intellectual control by University educators. • The application of military instructional design approaches to education.
Further Electronic Publications by Noble • Part II: The Coming Battle Over Online Instruction • Confidential agreements between universities and private companies pose serious challenge to faculty intellectual property rights. • Part III: The Bloom Is Off the Rose • Across the nation, the juggernaut has stalled • Examples include UCLA, California Educational Technology consortium and the UW. • Part IV: Rehearsal for the Revolution: • It is us vs. them. All can be found at: http://dlis.gseis.ucla.edu/people/pagre/rre.html
Is Distance Learning the Same as in the Classroom? Distance education is, after all, simply education at a distance with common frameworks, common conceptual concerns, and similar research questions relating to the social process of teaching and learning. -Yes-
Is Distance Learning the Same as in the Classroom? 1. Generally, you cannot see how the student reacts. 2. The instructor and the student need to be skilled with the technology. 3. Instructors need to pay attention to feelings and to motivations. 4. Increased need for developing an active learning environment. -No-
Is Distance Learning the Same as in the Classroom? -No- 5. Student may adopt a passive role. 6. DL is often created by teams rather than an individual instructor. 7. DL often uses course managers who handle administrative details. 8. DL may use tutors to monitor remote sites.
Attributes of Distance Learning • Separation of teacher and learner. • Influence of an educational organization. • Use of media to link teacher and learner. • Two-way exchange of communication. • Learners as individuals rather than grouped. • Educators as an industrialized form. • Places student in control of time and place.
Different Time Same Place Different Time Different Place Same Time Different Place Any Time Any Place Same Time Same Place A Technology View of Distance Learning
Non-interactive media such as broadcast television. Teleconferencing audio teleconferencing video teleconferencing, both in classroom and at the desktop Computer conferencing/Webinars Same Time/Different Place
Print Recorded Streaming Media/Webinars CD-Rom/DVD Videocassettes Computer-Medicated Communications Courseware, i.e. Blackboard, WebCT Email Discussion lists Different Time/Different Place
Usually takes place in a lstudy center where learners gather at different times to interact with instructors, tutors, and other students. Laboratory work Different Time/Same Place
Face to face meetings Used when it is important to bring students together for part of the class. (Summer) Hybrid courses are becoming more popular Same Time/Same Place
Migrating Your Course to the Online Environment Checklist • First Steps—Planning • Get support from your institution, especially your information systems staff. • Choose a good courseware package. • Make administrative adjustments to allow for on-line registration, etc. • Talk with other experienced faculty and attend seminars.
Migrating Your Course to the Online Environment Checklist • First Steps—Planning • Get to know your courseware package. • Don’t think in terms of developing a “new course”. • Is this true? • Think beyond the traditional classroom-bound paradigms.
Migrating Your Course to the Online Environment Checklist • First Steps—Planning • Don’t let the technology dictate how you teach the course—make technology work for you. • Develop contingency plans.
Migrating Your Course to the Online Environment Checklist • Next Step—Converting Your Course • Develop a policy on academic integrity. • Prepare a method by which you can verify your students. • Decide on testing.
Migrating Your Course to the Online Environment Checklist • Next Step—Converting Your Course • Develop and post your syllabus, class schedule, and other introductory materials. • Develop how-to sites. • Decide on synchronous vrs. Asynchronous. • Choose asynchronous
Migrating Your Course to the Online Environment Checklist • Next Step—Converting Your Course • Plan group and active learning activities. • Base a significant part of the grade on discussions. • Schedule time to keep in touch with your class.
Migrating Your Course to the Online Environment Checklist • Final Step—Plan Evaluation • Use both formative and summative evaluation. • Determine evaluation procedures in advance of teaching your course online. • Network with other on-line instructors. • Don’t be discouraged the first time around. • Remember that the technology is changing rapidly.
Focusing on the Learner • Many are adult learners. • Thus the instructor needs to: • Promote autonomy and self-direction. • Acknowledge the experience of the learners. • Establish an “adult” teacher-learner relationship. • Work to meet the special needs of the learner. • Encourage collaborative group learning.
Keep In Mind Transactional Distance: the distance between the learner and the student. • This can be lessened by good use of technology. Interaction • Learner-Instructor interaction • Learner-content interaction • Learner-learner interaction
Keep In Mind Control • Research shows that learning improves when the student feels that they are in control of the learning process.