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History of Educational Technology. By: Laura Urquieta. Early 1920’s Pressey Testing Machine. Sidney Pressey an educational psychology professor at Ohio State University, developed a machine to provide drill and practice items to students in his introductory courses.

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early 1920 s pressey testing machine
Early 1920’s Pressey Testing Machine

Sidney Pressey an educational psychology professor at Ohio State University, developed a machine to provide drill and practice items to students in his introductory courses.

The teaching machine looked like a typewriter with a window that revealed a question having four answers. On one side there were four keys and when a user pressed a key, the machine recorded the answer on the back and revealed the next question. After the user was finished the person scoring the test slipped the test sheet back into the device and noted the score on the counter.

early 1940 s military films for training needs
Early 1940’s Military Films for Training Needs
  • World War II demanded a new way to train rapidly thousands of new recruits and the new weapons demanded high training. In order to achieve those goals films for instruction and AV technology were dominant.
1945 vannevar bush s the memex
1945 – Vannevar Bush’s “The Memex”
  • Hypothetical proto-hypertext system in which individuals would compress and store their books, records, and communications. Bush described a memex as an electrical device that individuals could use to read self-contained research library and add or follow associative trials of links and notes created by that individual or recorded by other researchers.
1960 project xanadu
1960 – Project Xanadu
  • Ted Nelson founded the first hypertext project in 1960 called Project Xanadu. Hypertext lets you connect screens with information using associative links.
1967 hypertext editing system hes
1967 – Hypertext Editing System (HES)

HES was an early hypertext research project conducted at Brown University by Andries van Dam, Ted Nelson and several Brown students. It was a system that organize data into two main types, links and branching text. The branching text could be arranged into menus and a point within a given area could also have an assigned name, called a label, and be accessed alter by that name from the screen.

1973 xerox alto desktop
1973 – Xerox Alto Desktop

Xerox Alto was one of the first computers developed at Xerox PARC design for individual use, making it what is now a personal computer.

1976 problem oriented medical information system promis
1976 – Problem- Oriented Medical Information System (PROMIS)
  • PROMIS was a hypertext system design at the University at Vermont by Jan Schultz and Dr. Larry Weed, for maintaining health care records. PROMIS was an interactive touch screen system that allowed users to access a medical record within a large body of medical knowledge.
1978 aspen movie map
1978 – Aspen Movie Map
  • The Aspen Movie Map allowed the user to take a virtual tour of the city of Aspen Colorado. It was and early example of hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman.
1979 perq
1979 - PERQ
  • PERQ was a workstation computer influence by the original workstation computer, the Xerox Alto. It was the first commercially produced personal workstation.
1981 electronic document system eds
1981 – Electronic Document System (EDS)
  • The EDS was and early hypertext system also known as Interactive Graphical Documents (IGD) hypermedia system, focus on the creation of documents such as equipment repair manuals or computer-aided instruction texts with embedded links and graphics.
1983 the interactive encyclopedia system ties
1983 – The Interactive Encyclopedia System (TIES)
  • TIES was a hypertext system developed at the Universality of Maryland, College Park by Ben Shneiderman. TIES ran in DOS text mode using the cursor arrow keys for navigating through information.
1985 intermedia hypertext
1985 – Intermedia (Hypertext)
  • Intermedia supported by-directional, dual anchor links for both text and graphics. Small icons are sued as an anchor markers. Linked information is stored by the system apart from the source text, allowing each user to have it’s own “web” of information.
1987 hypercard
1987 - Hypercard
  • An application program for Apple Computer, Inc. – was among the first successful bypermedia before the World Wide Web. It combined database capabilities with graphical, flexible, user – modifiable interface.
1990 world wide web
1990 – World Wide Web
  • A system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the internet. With a web browser one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
1995 wiki
1995 - Wiki
  • A website whose users can add, modify, or delete it’s content via web browser using a simplified markup language or riched-text editor.
1998 extensive markup language xml
1998 – Extensive Markup Language (XML)
  • A markup language that defines the set of rules of encoding documents in a format that is both human and machine readable. The goal was to emphasize simplicity, generality and usability over the internet.
2001 wikipedia
2001 - Wikipedia
  • A free collaborative, multilingual internet encyclopedia. Currently, the largest and most popular general reference works on the internet. Almost all its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site and its has about 100,000 active contributors.