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Matter and Change. Unit 2. Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that take place with that matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume . Examples of Matter. States of Matter (Review). separation. separation. compound. element. chemical. matter. solution. physical.

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matter and change

Matter and Change

Unit 2

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that take place with that matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume.

slide5

separation

separation

compound

element

chemical

matter

solution

physical

heterogeneous mixture

pure substance

mixture

slide6

Element, compound, or mixture?

Mixture

Element

Element

Compound

Mixture

Compound

vocabulary
Vocabulary

Based on the picture below, how would you define homogeneous and heterogeneous?

Homogenous:

Heterogeneous:

Uniform in appearance and composition; A mixture of 2 or more pure substances that are evenly mixed throughout

VARIED in composition and appearance; A mixture of 2 or more pure substances in an unfixed ratio

slide8

Definite vs. Variable Composition

Compound

Mixture

Variable

Definite

What's the ratio of Red : Blue?

vocabulary mixture
Vocabulary: Mixture

A combination of 2 or more substances that are

not chemically combined and have variable

composition

Pure Substance

(H2O)

Mixture!

vocabulary solution
Vocabulary: Solution

A homogeneous mixture composed of

one phase of matter

slide11

Vocabulary

Pure Substance: a chemical substance with a fixed composition

element

compound

pure substances
Pure Substances

Element: has only one type of atom

Compound: a combination of 2 or more elements chemically combined.

summary of mixtures
Summary of Mixtures
  • Can appear homogeneous OR heterogeneous
  • Has 2 types of pure substances present
  • Can be separated physically (ex: magnetic force, evaporation, filtration)
  • Has variable composition
slide14

No bonds break

Physical Separation (of a mixture)

Mixture

No new substance

slide15

Chromatography

This technique separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent.

slide16

Filtration

In filtration solid substances are separated from liquids and solutions.

slide17

Distillation

Distillation uses differences in the boiling points of substances to separate a homogeneous mixture (solution) into its components.

slide18

Break bonds

Chem reaction

Chemical Separation (of a compound)

Compound

Elements

New substances!

elements
Elements
  • Can appear homogenous
  • Is considered a pure substance
  • Has only one type of atom
  • Cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
  • Has a fixed/definite composition

http://vimeo.com/6929507

slide20

Compounds

Compounds can be broken down into more elemental particles.

compounds
Compounds
  • Can appear homogeneous
  • Is considered a pure substance
  • Always has only one type of molecule
  • Can only be separated by a chemical reaction
  • Has a fixed/definite composition
both elements compounds
Both: Elements & Compounds
  • Can appear homogeneous
  • Are a pure substance
  • Has fixed or definite composition
review
REVIEW!
  • Explain how elements and compounds are the same.
  • Explain how elements and compounds are different.

Compounds can be broken down into 2 or more elements

Pure substances!

Appears homogeneous!

Fixed/definite composition!

the set of characteristics used to identify a substance are the properties used
The set of characteristics used to identify a substance are the properties used…

PHYSICAL

  • A quality that can be observed where no changes to the substance are required (ID unchanged)

CHEMICAL

  • Any quality that can ONLY be established by changing the chemical ID of the substance
physical properties
Physical Properties

Physical properties describe characteristics like

  • Color
  • Hardness
  • Density
  • Texture
  • Phase
  • Boiling Point
  • Odor
  • Polarity
  • Solubility
  • Concentration
  • Ductility
  • Malleability
  • Elasticity
  • Viscosity
  • Mass
  • Volume
  • Conductivity
chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • pH
  • Reactivity with water or other compounds
  • Toxicity
  • Radioactivity
  • Flammability
  • Oxidation
intensive v extensive properties
Intensive v. Extensive Properties
  • Intensive Properties…
    • Depend on the type of matter, NOT the amount of matter in a sample.
  • Extensive Properties…
    • Depend upon the amount of matter in a sample.
  • Ex: Density, BP, MP, FP color, odor, etc.
  • Ex: Mass, volume, energy, etc.
physical changes
Physical Changes

Can be a change in PHASE as a result of heating, cooling, or pressure.

Also covers changes in the size of the substance WITHOUT CHANGING THE CHEMICAL IDENTITY

chemical changes
Chemical Changes
  • The process of forming a new substance OR the altering of the previous substance(s) chemical identity.
    • As wood burns,

CO2 gas and H2O vapor

are released.

  • New materials are formed by the rearrangement of molecules
slide30

Physical vs Chemical Changes

  • IS A NEW SUBSTANCE FORMED?
  • If no …. Physical change
  • If yes … Chemical change
  • Signs of a chemical change:
  • Color/odor change
  • Produce a gas / (not boiling)
  • Change in temperature
  • 4) Change in properties
  • 5) Precipitation of a solid from
  • 2 liquids

Physical changes can

do some of these too!

some practice
Some Practice
  • Grape juice fermented into wine
  • Wood to ashes
  • Fuel burning
  • Rocks crushed into powder
  • Water boiling
  • Condensation of water

C

C

C

P

P

P