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Matter and Change. Chapter 3. Diatomic. Two atoms of the same element bonded together. Phase. A sample of matter that looks the same. Substance . A form of matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition…aka a pure substance. The 3 Physical States of Matter. Solid Liquid Gas.

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diatomic
Diatomic
  • Two atoms of the same element bonded together
phase
Phase
  • A sample of matter that looks the same
substance
Substance
  • A form of matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition…aka a pure substance
solid
Solid
  • Definite shape and volume
  • Atoms/molecules held rigidly in place
  • Non-compressible
liquid
Liquid
  • No definite shape; takes the shape of its container; Non-compressible
  • Definite volume
  • Molecules are farther apart than those of a solid, allowing molecules to flow past one another
slide8
Gas
  • No definite shape nor volume
  • Gases take the shape & volume of their container
  • Gases are mostly empty space
  • Compressible
what is the physical state of each of the following at room temperature
What is the physical state of each of the following at room temperature?
  • gold
  • gasoline
  • helium
  • bromine
  • lithium
  • nitrogen
the 3 chemical classes of matter
The 3 Chemical Classes of Matter
  • Element
  • Compound
  • Mixture
1 element
1. Element
  • A substance that can’t be reduced to a simpler form
  • The building blocks of all substances
  • Made up of only one type of atom
3 types of elements
3 Types of Elements
  • Metals: to the left of the “stair-step;” the majority of the elements
  • Non-metals: to the right of the “stair-step”
  • Metalloids: non-metals on the stair step having metal and non-metal properties
2 compounds
2. COMPOUNDS
  • formed when 2 or more different elements join chemically in a definite pattern/ arrangement
  • Can be made or separated by chemical reactions
2 types of compounds
2 Types of Compounds
  • ionic compounds: made up of a metal and a non-metal portion
  • covalent compounds: composed of non-metals
3 mixtures
3. Mixtures
  • 2 or more distinct substances mixed together with variable composition
  • may have distinct phases
  • can be separated by physical methods
    • Distillation
    • Filtration
    • chromotography
2 types of mixtures
2 Types of Mixtures
  • Homogeneous
  • Heterogeneous
homogeneous mixture aka solution sol n
Homogeneous Mixture: aka Solution (sol’n)
  • Has a constant composition throughout
  • always has a single phase
  • can be any state of matter
give me some examples of solutions in each of the 3 states of matter
Give me some examples of solutions in each of the 3 states of matter.

gas: Air nitrous oxide(dentist)

liquid: salt water 7-up

solid: gold ring, metal alloys

heterogeneous mixture
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • A mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout
  • 2 or more distinct phases are visible
which of the 3 are substances
Which of the 3 are substances?
  • Elements
  • Compounds
  • Mixtures
classify each of the following as elements compounds or mixtures
Classify each of the following as elements, compounds, or mixtures.
  • Silver
  • pine tree
  • Carbon dioxide
  • orange juice
  • oxygen
  • iced tea
  • air
  • water
separating mixtures
Separating Mixtures
  • Filtration
  • Distillation
  • Crystallization
  • Chromatography
1 filtration
1. Filtration
  • Filtration: a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid.
  • Separates heterogeneous mixtures of solids and liquids
2 distillation
2. Distillation
  • A separation technique that is based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved
  • A mixture is heated until the substance with the lowest boiling point boils to a vapor that can then be condensed into a liquid and collected.
3 crystallization
3. Crystallization
  • A separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance.
    • ie. Rock candy
4 chromatography
4. Chromatography
  • A technique that separates the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material.
physical properties of matter
Physical Properties of Matter
  • Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition
    • intensive properties: are independent of sample size.
      • ie. density, color, boiling point
    • extensive properties are dependent on the amount of material present.
      • ie. mass and volume
physical changes of matter
Physical Changes of Matter
  • Changes that alter a substance without changing its chemical composition
    • ie. Changes in physical state
chemical properties of matter
Chemical Properties of Matter
  • Chemical properties are only observed in chemical reactions
  • Reactivity: the tendency of a substance to undergo a particular chemical reaction when exposed to an agent.
examples
Examples
  • 2H2O reactivity to electric current→ 2H2(g) + O2(g)
  • H2O reactivity to alkali metals→ H2(g) [Cesium in water causes explosion]
  • Fe reactivity to O2 + H2O (fog)→ Fe2O3(rust) Iron Oxide

(you leave your bike out in the fog and it rusts)

rubidium cesium francium in water
Rubidium,Cesium, & Francium in water
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJGqC4vXBms
chemical change
Chemical Change
  • A process that involves one or more substances changing into new substances
slide42
Reactants: the starting materials in a chemical reaction
  • Products:the newly formed substances from a chemical reaction
4 indicators of chemical change often accompany chemical change
4 Indicators of Chemical Change: (often accompany chemical change)
  • color change
  • precipitate formation
  • gas evolution
  • heat evolution or heat absorption
2 types of reactions
2 Types of Reactions
  • Exothermic: Heat is released/given off during a chemical reaction
  • Endothermic: Heat is absorbed during the chemical reaction
gas formation
Gas Formation
  • Zn + 2 HCl → H2 (g) + ZnCl2
color change and precipitate formation
Color Change and Precipitate Formation
  • 2 KI + Pb(NO3)2→ 2 KNO3 + PbI2 (s)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RE-dFN7U91M&feature=player_detailpage
conservation of mass
Conservation of Mass
  • In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed, but it can change from one form to another.
  • Mass of Reactants= Mass of Products
    • → Material Balance
conservation of mass1
Conservation of Mass
  • From a lab experiment designed to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen, a student collected 10.0 g of hydrogen and 79.4 g of oxygen. How many grams of water were originally present?
chemistry
Chemistry
  • is the study of the composition of substances and the changes they undergo.
  • In chemistry, a specific language is used when referring to elements.
periodic table of elements
Periodic Table of Elements
  • Groups: (Families) the vertical columns on the periodic table.
  • Periods: Horizontal Rows.
  • Each element is represented by a symbol
  • Symbols are one to three letters
  • The first letter is always capitalized, 2nd & 3rd letters are always lower case.
  • Often the chemical symbols coincide with the spelling of the element, but other times the symbols were derived from the Latin name for the element.
periodic table of elements cont
Periodic Table of Elements, cont.
  • Metals: Good conductors of heat and electricity. In general, they are malleable, ductile, lustrous, etc
  • Non-Metals: Poor conductors of heat and electricity. Solids are brittle
  • Metalloid: Having characteristics of both metals and non-metals
chemical symbols
Chemical symbols
  • Can be used to represent chemical formulas.
  • The numerical subscripts tell the proportion of each element in a compound or diatomic element.
iupac
IUPAC
  • International
  • Union (of)
  • Pure &
  • Applied
  • Chemistry
  • IUPAC-developed a systematic way of naming elements that are 1st synthesized
one syllable root word to represent numbers
One-syllable root word to represent numbers
  • 0-nil
  • 1-un
  • 2-bi
  • 3-tri
  • 4-quad
  • 5-pent
  • 6-hex
  • 7-sept
  • 8-oct
  • 9-enn
to write the name for synthesized elements
To write the name for synthesized elements:
  • Use the root word for each number in the element
  • Add –ium to the ending
examples1
Examples
  • 110→…
  • 124 →…
  • 139 →....
to write the chemical symbol for the element
To write the chemical symbol for the element:
  • Take the 1st letter of each root word, capitalize it and lower case the 2nd and 3rd
examples2
examples
  • 113 →
  • 156 →
  • 213 →
law of definite proportions
Law of Definite Proportions:
  • States that regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion, by mass.
  • For example, water, is always H2O…
    • Which is ~11% Hydrogen
    • And ~89% oxygen
percent by mass
Percent by mass (%):

mass of element x 100

Mass of compound

mass of compound
Mass of Compound:
  • the sum of the masses of the individual elements that make up the compound.
example
Example
  • A sample of an unknown compound contains 5.3 g oxygen and 20.0 g of copper. What is the percent by mass of each element in the compound?
law of multiple proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
  • States that when different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers
ratios
Ratios:
  • Compare the relative amounts of any items or substances
  • Express the relationship of elements in a compound
mass ratio
Mass Ratio

1. Mass of element in a compound = ratio

Mass of other element in compound

2. Mass ratio compound I = small whole #

Mass ratio compound II

*find the mass ratio for each compound, then divide the two ratios to give a small whole # ratio

slide70

Example: Analysis Data of Two Iron CompoundsAre Compounds I and II the same compound?If not, use the law of multiple proportions to show the relationship between them.