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Principles of HCI Design. CS774 Human-Computer Interaction Spring 2004. HCI Design Principles. Design involves choices Big choices - primary interaction styles Little choices - button label, color, position HCI design is art, not science No algorithm to make choices for you

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principles of hci design

Principles of HCI Design

CS774 Human-Computer Interaction

Spring 2004

hci design principles
HCI Design Principles
  • Design involves choices
    • Big choices - primary interaction styles
    • Little choices - button label, color, position
  • HCI design is art, not science
    • No algorithm to make choices for you
  • Principles help make choices
    • Heuristics -- rule of thumb, wise guess
    • etymology:from Greek heuriskein to discover, to find

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

proliferation of principles
Proliferation of Principles
  • Shneiderman - 3 principles, 8 golden rules
  • Norman - 7 principles
  • Borenstein - 10 commandments
  • Mandel - 3 golden rules
  • Johnson (GUI Bloopers) - 9 principles, 82 bloopers and rules to prevent them
  • How to learn what everyone has to say?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

what have we learned so far
What have we learned so far?
  • Knowledge in the world
    • Books, notes, bookmarks - organize the world
  • Magic number 7
    • Keep the number in mind small
  • Learn
    • Accommodate/assimilate/habituate
  • Mnemonics
    • Use patterns, mental images, to organize your mind

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

principles vs guidelines
Principles vs. Guidelines
  • General Principles
    • Applicable to many interface systems
    • Big and small designs
    • Verified by research experience
  • Widget Guidelines
    • Designed for specific GUI systems
    • Gives grammar and vocabulary for interface
    • Mostly for smaller decisions
    • Apple, Windows, Java guidelines

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

process vs usability
Process vs. Usability
  • Process principles
    • Such as make prototypes, involve user, etc.
    • Focuses on what you do
  • Usability principles
    • Such as provide feedback, be consistent, etc.
    • Focuses on what you create
    • Good for evaluation of interface

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

chapter 2 principles
Chapter 2 Principles
  • Principle 1: Recognize the diversity
    • Characterize users, tasks and interaction styles
    • Foreshadows rest of book - will get back to
  • Principle 2: Use the Eight Golden Rules
    • Will do now
  • Principle 3: Prevent Errors
    • Your homework

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

1 strive for consistency
1. Strive for Consistency
  • Make the elements of your interface consistent.
  • What elements?
  • Consistent with what?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

consistency
Consistency
  • With what?
    • Within your own program?
    • With other programs?
    • With the user’s experience in the world?
  • What elements?
    • Actions
    • Widgets
    • Data

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

2 enable shortcuts
2. Enable shortcuts
  • Let the interface grow with the user
  • How?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

shortcut options
Shortcut options
  • Keyboard short cuts
  • Toolbars
  • Re-configurable menus and toolbars
  • Alternative representations

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

a counter opinion
A counter opinion
  • Jeff Raskin
    • One button mouse
    • Monotonous interfaces - only one way to do X
  • Multiple options can result from
    • Legacy options
    • Management indecision (oh, include them all)
    • Myth of beginner/expert users
  • Current GUIs mix of two inferior interfaces
    • Inefficient menu system + incomplete keyboard system

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

3 offer informative feedback
3. Offer informative feedback
  • Let the user know what happened
  • How?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

feedback
Feedback
  • Responsiveness
    • Do it quickly
    • If it’s going to be a while, tell the user
    • Use watch cursors, progress bars
  • When? What is a complete action to report on?
  • How?
    • Change appearance of object (WYSIWYG)
    • Dialog boxes
    • Status of interface (grey out menu items, highlight, etc)

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

4 design for closure
4. Design for closure
  • Let the user know the task is done
  • How?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

computers as theatre
Computers as Theatre
  • Brenda Laurel - started as game designer
  • Computer Screen as stage on which we enact scripts
  • Think of interface in terms of
    • Narrative flow - beginning, middle, end
    • Actors/Agents - who saved your file? Who gave you the error message?
    • Stage with actors carrying out an action

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

5 offer error prevention
5. Offer error prevention
  • Design the system to prevent errors
  • How?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

avoid errors control input
Avoid errors - control input
  • Grey out inappropriate commands
  • Forcing functions
  • Control field input
    • No letters innumber field
  • Know causes/frequency

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

responding to errors
Responding to errors
  • Error messages should be in user’s language
  • Actions should be clear
  • Avoid guessing user intent
    • PL/I and parens
  • Do nothing (???)

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

6 permit easy reversal
6. Permit easy reversal
  • Let the user undo actions
  • How and why?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

easy undos
Easy undos
  • Allow the user to feel safe
    • Less risk of damaging data
    • (Why is data ever damaged? Why not retain everything? Problem of the Mac trash can.)
  • Correct errors
  • Allow experimentation
  • How
    • Revert to saved, undo (how long? What is a single action?), automatic backup files

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

7 support internal locus of control
7. Support internal locus of control
  • Keep the user in control
  • How?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

user in control
User in control
  • Avoid modal dialogs (with Java threads!)
  • Avoid long guided sequences
  • Be permissive
  • Provide exits
    • Cancel, undo,interrupt, quit

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

8 reduce short term memory load
8. Reduce short-term memory load
  • Magic number 7+/-2
  • How do we manage this?

CS774 HCI Spring 2004

reducing memory load
Reducing memory load
  • Rely on recognition, not memory (see and point)
  • Provide cues (affordances, toolbars, menus)
  • Visual clarity (Greek temple, not strip mall)
  • Progressive disclosure (hide advanced stuff)

CS774 HCI Spring 2004