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General Biology II Lab. Bacteria, Protists , Fungi. Taxonomy. Taxonomy is changing DNA technology is showing relationships previously not known You will hear the term “clade” – what does that mean? Clade – any taxon that consists of all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor

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general biology ii lab

General Biology II Lab

Bacteria, Protists, Fungi

taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Taxonomy is changing
    • DNA technology is showing relationships previously not known
    • You will hear the term “clade” – what does that mean?
      • Clade – any taxon that consists of all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor
        • Identified by picking any point on a phylogenetic tree and tracing all the descendant lineages
taxonomy1
Taxonomy
  • Binomial Nomenclature, Scientific Name
    • Genus species or Genusspecies
      • Genus is capitalized, species is lowercase
      • Italicized or underlined
      • Homo sapiens Homosapiens
      • Tursiops truncatus Tursiopstruncatus
      • Callinectes sapidus Callinectessapidus
the domains
The Domains
  • Domain Bacteria – unicellular prokaryotes
    • Bacteria
    • Cyanobacteria
  • Domain Archaea – unicellular prokaryotes
    • Includes “extremophiles”
  • Domain Eukarya – eukaryotes
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Kingdom Animalia
yes you will have to use the microscope
Yes, you will HAVE to use the Microscope!
  • Tips:
    • Start on Scanning objective, look for color
    • Center and focus
    • Move to the 10x objective
    • Center and focus
    • Move to the 40x objective
    • Center and focus
    • If necessary, move to oil immersion
      • Place drop of oil on slide and move oil lens into the oil
      • DO NOT get oil on any of the other lenses
      • Be sure to WIPE oil off of lens when done!!!!! (with lens paper!)
domain bacteria bacteria
Domain BacteriaBacteria
  • Shapes
    • Spirillum
    • Coccus
    • Bacillus
domain bacteria cyanobacteria
Domain BacteriaCyanobacteria
  • Gleocapsa
  • Oscillatoria
  • Anabaena
domain eukarya kingdom protista changing
Domain EukaryaKingdom Protista - changing

Common name

    • Protozoa – heterotrophic, “animal-like”
    • Algae – autotrophic

Groups:

  • Excavata – Giardia, Trichomonas, Euglena, Trypanosoma
  • Alveolates – dinoflagellates, apicomplexans (plasmodium), ciliates (paramecium)
  • Stramenophiles – oomycetes, diatoms, brown algae
  • Rhodophytes – red algae
  • Chlorophytes – green algae
  • Rhizaria – foraminiferans, radiolarians
  • Amoebozoans – plasmodial slime molds, Amoeba
domain eukarya kingdom protista protozoa
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaProtozoa
  • Amoeba proteus – move by pseudopodia
domain eukarya kingdom protista protozoans1
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaProtozoans
  • Ciliates
    • Paramecium
    • Stentor
    • Vorticella
domain eukarya kingdom protista protozoans2
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaProtozoans
  • Trypanosoma
  • Trichomonas

Red blood

cells

domain eukarya kingdom protista protozoans3
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaProtozoans
  • Plasmodium – no means of locomotion
    • Look for it inside red blood cell
domain eukarya kingdom protista algae
DOMAIN EUKARYAKINGDOM PROTISTAALGAE
  • Microscopic algae
    • Phytoplankton
  • Macroscopic algae
    • “seaweed”
domain eukarya kingdom protista algae1
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaAlgae
  • Green Algae
    • Microscopic
      • Spirogyra
        • Look for green spirals
      • Volvox
    • Macroscopic
domain eukarya kingdom protista algae2
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaAlgae
  • Euglena – photosynthetic flagellate
    • Look for flagella and chloroplasts, can be mistaken for paramecium
domain eukarya kingdom protista algae3
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaAlgae
  • Diatoms

Electron Microscope picture

domain eukarya kingdom protista algae5
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaAlgae
  • Brown Algae
  • Macroscopic examples
    • Sargassum
    • Fucus
domain eukarya kingdom protista algae6
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaAlgae
  • Red Algae
    • Macroscopic examples
domain eukarya kingdom protista slime molds
Domain EukaryaKingdom ProtistaSlime molds
  • Slime Molds
    • Plasmodial slime molds
      • Physarum
domain eukarya kingdom fungi1
Domain EukaryaKingdom Fungi
  • Phylum Zygomycota – black bread molds
    • Rhizopus – under the microscope
domain eukarya kingdom fungi3
Domain EukaryaKingdom Fungi
  • Phylum Ascomycota – under the microscope
    • Saccharomyces - yeast
    • Penicillium
    • Aspergillus
    • Peziza

Cross section of cup

seen on previous slide

domain eukarya kingdom fungi4
Domain EukaryaKingdom Fungi
  • Phylum Basidiomycota
    • What we think of when we say “mushrooms”
domain eukarya kingdom fungi5
Domain EukaryaKingdom Fungi
  • Phylum Basidiomycota – under the microscope
    • Coprina
make notecards
Make Notecards!!!!!
  • On one side write:
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Group
    • Genus
    • Characteristics
  • Know what is prokaryotic and what is eukaryotic!
  • On the other side:
  • Picture of the organism
  • On Handout
    • Domain is capitalized
    • Group is in bold print
    • Genus is underlined (# is the slide #)
images from
Images from:
  • microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Spirillum
  • www.life.umd.edu/CBMG/faculty/asmith/smith2.html
  • commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bacillus_subt...
  • www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/.../labels/print/PL0013/
  • botit.botany.wisc.edu/.../Oscillatoria_MC.html
  • fnie-educationalmedia.pbwiki.com/Cyanobacteria
  • faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/.../protists.htm
  • bio1903.nicerweb.com/.../lab/diversity/protista/
  • https:/.../qry_media_id.php?media_id=2340
  • www.mccc.edu/%7Esmithro/Prokaryotes%20and%20P...
  • www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/.../wdstentor2.html
  • http://www.biology-resources.com/drawing-paramecium-vorticella.html
  • io.uwinnipeg.ca/.../16cm05/1116/16protis.htm
  • Noaa.gov
  • www.bioweb.uncc.edu/.../labpics/lab1pics.htm
  • workforce.cup.edu/buckelew/Plasmodium%20vivax...
  • http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/aM._conica_tjv.jpg
  • http://www.gltech.org/library/htmlaps/scannell/images/conica.jpg
  • www.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/.../page18/page18.html
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