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# Power quality phenomenon # Reasons of power quality # Effect of power quality PowerPoint Presentation
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# Power quality phenomenon # Reasons of power quality # Effect of power quality

# Power quality phenomenon # Reasons of power quality # Effect of power quality

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# Power quality phenomenon # Reasons of power quality # Effect of power quality

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Presentation Transcript

  1. # Power quality phenomenon # Reasons of power quality # Effect of power quality # Terms and Definitions of power quality

  2. What is Power Quality ? • Quality of electrical service • Utility, Equipment supplier/Manufacturer, Consumer • Power Quality problem: “Any power problems manifested in voltage, current, or frequency deviations which results in failure or misoperation of customer equipment”

  3. Reasons for Power Quality 1. New-Generation Load Equipment Microprocessors for Control Power Electronic Devices 2. Power System Efficiency Adjustable-Speed Generator/Motor Drive Shunt Capacitors 3. “Sensitive” Utility Customers • process controls • computer power supplies • electronics of all sorts 4. Interconnected Network Issues

  4. Complicating factors include: • Utility deregulation • utility may not be a single entity and problems may arise at any level • Distributed generation - Fuel Cells, Wind power, Photovoltaic power, etc. • complicates distribution feeder protection and control • may create power quality issues if not designed well • Resonance • unexpected resonances may occur, tending to exacerbate problems

  5. Causes of Power Quality Problems Results of a survey on the causes of power quality problems by Georgia Power Company

  6. Causes of Power Quality Problems

  7. Causes of Power Quality Problems

  8. Reasons for power quality problems include: • Switched shunt capacitors • utility power-factor correction • customer power-factor correction • Power system response to faults • reclosing circuit breakers into faults • system disturbances of all sorts

  9. power = voltage x current • The problem may have several aspects: • What is the “quality” of the voltage supplied to the customer by the utility? • What is the “quality” of the current drawn by the customer? • A second customer may see “poor quality” voltage caused by the utility or by the first customer or both

  10. Power or Voltage Quality? • Power=Voltage*Current • Real Power • Reactive Power • Voltage ? • Current ? • Short Circuit • Lightning • Harmonic Currents

  11. Impacts of Disturbances • Economic impacts on utility, customers, equipment supplier • Equipment damage • Loss of data • Manufacturing disruption • Loss of productivity

  12. How?

  13. Terms and Definitions

  14. IEEE Power Quality Standards • IEEE SCC-22: Power Quality Standards Coordinating Committee • IEEE 1159: Monitoring Electric Power Quality • IEEE P1564: Voltage Sag Indices • IEEE 1346:Power System Compatibility with Process Equipment • IEEE P1100: Power and Grounding Electronic Equipment (Emerald Book) • IEEE 1433: Power Quality Definitions • IEEE P1453: Voltage flicker • IEEE 519: Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems

  15. IEEE Power Quality Standards • IEEE Harmonics Working Group • Single-phase Harmonics Task Force • IEEE P519A Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems • Interharmonics Task Force • Harmonics Modeling and Simulation Task Force • Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonics Task Force • IEEE P446: Emergency and standby power • IEEE P1409: Distribution Custom Power • IEEE P1547: Distributed Resources and Electric Power Systems Interconnection

  16. Categories 1. Transient: impulsive, oscillatory 2. Short Duration Variations: sag, swell, interruption 3. Long Duration Variations: interruption, undervoltage, overvoltage 4. Voltage Unbalance 5. Waveform Distortion: harmonics, interharmonics, DC offset, notching, noise 6. Voltage Fluctuations 7. Frequency Variations

  17. Categories 1. Transient 1.1 impulsive 1.2 oscillatory 2. Short Duration 2.1 instantaneous interruption, sag, or swell 2.2 momentary interruption, sag, or swell 2.3 temporary interruption, sag, or swell

  18. Categories 3. Long Duration 3.1 interruption (sustained) 3.2 undervoltage 3.3 overvoltage 4. Voltage Unbalance steady state

  19. Categories 5. Distortion 5.1 DC offset 5.2 harmonics 5.3 interharmonics 5.4 noise 6. Voltage Fluctuations 7. Frequency Variations

  20. Power Systems Electromagnetic Phenomena (IEEE Std 1159-1995)

  21. Power Systems Electromagnetic Phenomena (IEEE Std 1159-1995)

  22. 2.0 Short Duration Variation Categories: Instantaneous Momentary Temporary Types: Interruption Sag Swell

  23. Definitions • Sag (or dip) is a decrease to a low voltage (between 0.1 and 0.9 per unit rms) at power frequency for durations of 0.5 cycle to 1 minute • Swell is an increase to a high voltage (between 1.1 and 1.8 per unit rms) at power frequency for durations of 0.5 cycle to 1 minute