Slovak University of Technology Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava Quality management
Definition of Quality • What is the quality ? • Quality is conformance to requirements • Other definitions: • Quality is fitness for use • Quality is meeting customer expectations
Explames of Quality Charakteristic • Product • Service
Explames of Quality Charakteristic • Product • Performance • Reasonable price • Durability • Available • Serviceability • Ease of use • Simplicty of deign
Explames of Quality Charakteristic • Product • Safe • Reliable • Maintainable • Aesthetics • Ease of disposal
Explames of Quality Charakteristic • Service • Responsiveness • Reliable • Comppetene • Accuracy • Courtesy • Ceredibility • Security • Understanding the costumer
Explames of Quality Charakteristic • Service • Completeness • Communication • Available • Safe access • Timeliness
Definition Quality • Is a characteristic of a product (good or service). It may be measured directly as compliance to some standard or indirectly by customer appreciation or impact.
Definition of Quality ISO 9001:2000 defined quality than:
Definition Quality management Is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implementing a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its perfarmance
Definition Quality management system (QMS) A set og policies, processes and procedures required for planning and execution (product/development/service) in then core business area of an Organisation.
Definition Total quality management (TQM) A customer focused management philosophy that seeks to continuously improve business processes using analytical tools and teamwork involving all employees. There are several TQm models, the EFQM, the Malcolm Baldridge, ISO 9000 being the most commonly used
The quality philosophies (gurus) What is a quality guru? Is a good person, a wise person and a teacher. The gurus mentioned in this section have done, and continue to do, that in some cases, even after their death
The quality philosophies (gurus) There have been three gruops gurus since the 1940s: • Early 1950s – American who took the mesage of quality to Japan • Late 1950s – Japanese who developed new concepts in response to the Amwericans • 1970s – 1980s Western gurus who followed the Japanese industrial success
The quality philosophies (gurus) • The Americans who went to Japan • W.Edwards Deming • Joseph M. Juran • Philip B. Crosby
The Americans guru W.E.Deming • 14 points for transformation of Western management • PDCA cycle • Deployment the Strategy of quality
Deming • 14 point plan for Western management: • Constatncy of purpose • The new philosophy • Cease mass inspection • End „lowest price“ purchasing • Constantly improve systems • Train everyone • Institute leadership
Deming • 14 point plan for Western management: • Drive out fear • Break down barriers • Eliminate exportations • Eliminate targets • Permit pride of workmanship • Encourage education • Top managements commitment
The Americans guru J.M. Juran • Two different of quality • The Juran Trilogy: Three basic managerial processes: quality planning, quality control and quality improvement • Three levels of quality management • The Jurans spirals
J.M.Juran • 7 steps program: • Establish quality policies and quides • Establish quality goals • Design quality plans to reach those goals • Assign responsibility for the plans • Provide necessary resources • Rewiev progress against goals • Evaluate manager performance vs.goals
Joseph M. Juran • he pursued a varied career as an engineer, executive, government administrator, university professor, labor arbitrator, corporate director, and consultant. • Specializing in managing for quality, he is the editor of Juran`s Quality Handbook. • Juran defines quality as consisting of two different, bud related concepts:
Joseph M. Juran • One from of quality is income oriented and consists of those features of the product that meet costumer needs and thereby produce income. • A second from of quality is cost oriented and consist of freedom from failures and deficiencies.
Joseph M. Juran Juran`s quality planning road map consists of the following steps: • determinate quality goals • Identify costumers • Discover costumers` needs
Joseph M. Juran • Translate from costumer language to products having desired features • Develop processes able to produce the product • Transfer the process, with appropriate controls, to operations
Joseph M. Juran Control takes place at all levels, from the CEO down to the workers, and all use the same feedback loop, witch is the following: • Measure performance • Compare performance to the goal - Take action if there is a gap
Joseph M. Juran Juran presented a structured approach for improvement in his book Managerial Breakthrough and included a list of responsibilities that upper managers should not delegate: • Create awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement • Make quality improvement a part of every job description
Joseph M. Juran • Create an infrastructure – a quality council who selects projects for improvement and established teams • Provide training in quality improvement methods • Regularly review improvement progress
Joseph M. Juran • Give recognition to improvement teams • Use the results to spread the word on the power of the efforts • Revise the reward system to enforce the rate of improvement • Maintain momentum by enlarging the business plan to include goals for quality improvement
Joseph M. Juran Juran also defines three levels of quality management: • Strategic quality management • Operational quality management • The workforce
Joseph M. Juran Juran defines TQM as a collection of certain quality-related activities: • Quality becomes a part of each upper management agenda • Quality goals enter the business plan • Stretch goals are derived from benchmarking – focus is on the costumer and on meeting competition, and there are goals for annual quality improvement • Goals are deployed to the action levels
Joseph M. Juran • Training is done at all levels • Measurement is established throughout • Upper managers regularly review progress against goals • Recognition is given for superior performance • The reward system is revised
The Americans guru P.B.Crosby • Defines absolutes of quality management • 14 points improvement quality management • Zero defect
Crosby • 5 absolutes of quality • Quality means conformance, not goodness or elegance • There is no such thing as a quality problem • It is always cheaper to do the job right the first time • Cost od quality is the only measure of performance • Zero defect is the only perfomance standart
Crosby • 14 step process: • Management commitment • Quality improvement team • Quality measurement • Cost of quality • Quality awareness • Corrective action • Zero defects
Crosby 14 step process: • Training • Zero defects day • Goals setting • Error cause removal • Recognition • Quality councils • Do it over again
The Japanese guru Kaoru Ischikawa • Autored the Guide to Quality Control • The autor the Ishikawa diagram and the assembly and use of the „seven basic tools of quality“
Kaoru Ishikawa • He was an early student of Deming and a member of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. He authored: • Guide to quality control – to help training of foremen and middle managers in Japan of the operation of quality circles.
Quality standards • History of ISO 9000 • 1987 version • 1994 version • 2000 version
Quality standards • Industry specific interpretations • AS 9000 – Aerospace Basic Quality System standards • PS 9000 – Pharmaceutical Packaging Materials • QS 9000 – American automotive manufacturers (GM, Ford, Chrysler) • ISO /TS 16949:2002 – American and European automotive manufacturers
Quality standards • Industry specific interpretations • TL 9000 – is the Telecom Quality management and Measurement System Standard • ISO 13 485:2003 – medical industrys equivalent of ISO 9001:2000
ISO series 9000 – 1987 version The three models for quality management systems: ISO 9001:1987 Model for quality assurance in design, development, production, installation, and servicing ISO 9002:1987 Model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing ISO 9003:1987 Model quality assurance in final inspection and test
ISO series 9000 – 1994 version ISO 9000:94 emphasized quality assurance via preventative actions, instead of just checking final product, and continued to require evidence of compliate with documented procesures.
ISO series 9000 – 2000 version ISO 9001:2000 combines the three standards ISO 9001, ISO 9002, ISO 9003 • Now called ISO 9001:2000 • The 2000 version • sought to make a radical change in thinking by actually placing the oncept of process management front and centre • Is to improve effectiveness via process perfoermance metrics – numerical measurement of the efectiveness of tasks and acitvities
Standards ISO series 9000:2000 • Assist an organization in developing, implementing, registering, and sustaining a appropriate QMS function independent of the specific product and /or services
Standards ISO series 9000:2000 • Includes eight principles that when followed should improve organizational performance
Standards ISO series 9000:2000 8 principles QMS: • Customer focus • Leadreship • Involvement of People • Continual Improvement • Process Approach • Systems Approach • Factual Deision Making • Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships
8 principles QMS Principle 1: Customer focus • Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations.
8 principles QMS Principle 1: Customer focus • Key benefits: • Increased revenue and market share obtained through flexible and fast responses to market opportunities. • Increased effectiveness in the use of the organization's resources to enhance customer satisfaction. • Improved customer loyalty leading to repeat business.
8 principles QMS Principle 1: Customer focus • Applying the principle of customer focus typically leads to: • Researching and understanding customer needs and expectations. • Ensuring that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations.
8 principles QMS • Communicating customer needs and expectations throughout the organization. • Measuring customer satisfaction and acting on the results. • Systematically managing customer relationships. • Ensuring a balanced approach between satisfying customers and other interested parties (such as owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole).