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Slovak University of Technology Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava. Quality management. Definition of Quality. What is the quality ? Quality is conformance to requirements Other definitions: Quality is fitness for use Quality is meeting customer expectations.

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Quality management

Slovak University of Technology

Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava

Quality management

Definition of quality
Definition of Quality

  • What is the quality ?

    • Quality is conformance to requirements

  • Other definitions:

    • Quality is fitness for use

    • Quality is meeting customer expectations

Explames of quality charakteristic1
Explames of Quality Charakteristic

  • Product

  • Performance

  • Reasonable price

  • Durability

  • Available

  • Serviceability

  • Ease of use

  • Simplicty of deign

Explames of quality charakteristic2
Explames of Quality Charakteristic

  • Product

  • Safe

  • Reliable

  • Maintainable

  • Aesthetics

  • Ease of disposal

Explames of quality charakteristic3
Explames of Quality Charakteristic

  • Service

  • Responsiveness

  • Reliable

  • Comppetene

  • Accuracy

  • Courtesy

  • Ceredibility

  • Security

  • Understanding the costumer

Explames of quality charakteristic4
Explames of Quality Charakteristic

  • Service

  • Completeness

  • Communication

  • Available

  • Safe access

  • Timeliness



  • Is a characteristic of a product (good or service). It may be measured directly as compliance to some standard or indirectly by customer appreciation or impact.

Definition of quality1
Definition of Quality

ISO 9001:2000 defined quality than:


Quality management

Is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implementing a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its perfarmance


Quality management system (QMS)

A set og policies, processes and procedures required for planning and execution (product/development/service) in then core business area of an Organisation.


Total quality management (TQM)

A customer focused management philosophy that seeks to continuously improve business processes using analytical tools and teamwork involving all employees. There are several TQm models, the EFQM, the Malcolm Baldridge, ISO 9000 being the most commonly used

The quality philosophies gurus
The quality philosophies (gurus)

What is a quality guru?

Is a good person, a wise person and a teacher.

The gurus mentioned in this section have done, and continue to do, that in some cases, even after their death

The quality philosophies gurus1
The quality philosophies (gurus)

There have been three gruops gurus since the 1940s:

  • Early 1950s – American who took the mesage of quality to Japan

  • Late 1950s – Japanese who developed new concepts in response to the Amwericans

  • 1970s – 1980s Western gurus who followed the Japanese industrial success

The quality philosophies gurus2
The quality philosophies (gurus)

  • The Americans who went to Japan

    • W.Edwards Deming

    • Joseph M. Juran

    • Philip B. Crosby

The americans guru
The Americans guru


  • 14 points for transformation of Western management

  • PDCA cycle

  • Deployment the Strategy of quality


  • 14 point plan for Western management:

    • Constatncy of purpose

    • The new philosophy

    • Cease mass inspection

    • End „lowest price“ purchasing

    • Constantly improve systems

    • Train everyone

    • Institute leadership


  • 14 point plan for Western management:

    • Drive out fear

    • Break down barriers

    • Eliminate exportations

    • Eliminate targets

    • Permit pride of workmanship

    • Encourage education

    • Top managements commitment

The americans guru1
The Americans guru

J.M. Juran

  • Two different of quality

  • The Juran Trilogy: Three basic managerial processes: quality planning, quality control and quality improvement

  • Three levels of quality management

  • The Jurans spirals

J m juran

  • 7 steps program:

    • Establish quality policies and quides

    • Establish quality goals

    • Design quality plans to reach those goals

    • Assign responsibility for the plans

    • Provide necessary resources

    • Rewiev progress against goals

    • Evaluate manager performance vs.goals

Joseph m juran
Joseph M. Juran

  • he pursued a varied career as an engineer, executive, government administrator, university professor, labor arbitrator, corporate director, and consultant.

  • Specializing in managing for quality, he is the editor of Juran`s Quality Handbook.

  • Juran defines quality as consisting of two different, bud related concepts:

Joseph m juran1
Joseph M. Juran

  • One from of quality is income oriented and consists of those features of the product that meet costumer needs and thereby produce income.

  • A second from of quality is cost oriented and consist of freedom from failures and deficiencies.

Joseph m juran2
Joseph M. Juran

Juran`s quality planning road map consists of the following steps:

  • determinate quality goals

  • Identify costumers

  • Discover costumers` needs

Joseph m juran3
Joseph M. Juran

  • Translate from costumer language to products having desired features

  • Develop processes able to produce the product

  • Transfer the process, with appropriate controls, to operations

Joseph m juran4
Joseph M. Juran

Control takes place at all levels, from the CEO down to the workers, and all use the same feedback loop, witch is the following:

  • Measure performance

  • Compare performance to the goal

    - Take action if there is a gap

Joseph m juran5
Joseph M. Juran

Juran presented a structured approach for improvement in his book Managerial Breakthrough and included a list of responsibilities that upper managers should not delegate:

  • Create awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement

  • Make quality improvement a part of every job description

Joseph m juran6
Joseph M. Juran

  • Create an infrastructure – a quality council who selects projects for improvement and established teams

  • Provide training in quality improvement methods

  • Regularly review improvement progress

Joseph m juran7
Joseph M. Juran

  • Give recognition to improvement teams

  • Use the results to spread the word on the power of the efforts

  • Revise the reward system to enforce the rate of improvement

  • Maintain momentum by enlarging the business plan to include goals for quality improvement

Joseph m juran8
Joseph M. Juran

Juran also defines three levels of quality management:

  • Strategic quality management

  • Operational quality management

  • The workforce

Joseph m juran9
Joseph M. Juran

Juran defines TQM as a collection of certain quality-related activities:

  • Quality becomes a part of each upper management agenda

  • Quality goals enter the business plan

  • Stretch goals are derived from benchmarking – focus is on the costumer and on meeting competition, and there are goals for annual quality improvement

  • Goals are deployed to the action levels

Joseph m juran10
Joseph M. Juran

  • Training is done at all levels

  • Measurement is established throughout

  • Upper managers regularly review progress against goals

  • Recognition is given for superior performance

  • The reward system is revised

The americans guru2
The Americans guru


  • Defines absolutes of quality management

  • 14 points improvement quality management

  • Zero defect


  • 5 absolutes of quality

    • Quality means conformance, not goodness or elegance

    • There is no such thing as a quality problem

    • It is always cheaper to do the job right the first time

    • Cost od quality is the only measure of performance

    • Zero defect is the only perfomance standart


  • 14 step process:

    • Management commitment

    • Quality improvement team

    • Quality measurement

    • Cost of quality

    • Quality awareness

    • Corrective action

    • Zero defects


14 step process:

  • Training

  • Zero defects day

  • Goals setting

  • Error cause removal

  • Recognition

  • Quality councils

  • Do it over again

The japanese guru
The Japanese guru

Kaoru Ischikawa

  • Autored the Guide to Quality Control

  • The autor the Ishikawa diagram and the assembly and use of the „seven basic tools of quality“

Kaoru ishikawa
Kaoru Ishikawa

  • He was an early student of Deming and a member of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. He authored:

  • Guide to quality control – to help training of foremen and middle managers in Japan of the operation of quality circles.

Quality standards
Quality standards

  • History of ISO 9000

    • 1987 version

    • 1994 version

    • 2000 version

Quality standards1
Quality standards

  • Industry specific interpretations

    • AS 9000 – Aerospace Basic Quality System standards

    • PS 9000 – Pharmaceutical Packaging Materials

    • QS 9000 – American automotive manufacturers (GM, Ford, Chrysler)

    • ISO /TS 16949:2002 – American and European automotive manufacturers

Quality standards2
Quality standards

  • Industry specific interpretations

    • TL 9000 – is the Telecom Quality management and Measurement System Standard

    • ISO 13 485:2003 – medical industrys equivalent of ISO 9001:2000

Iso series 9000 1987 version
ISO series 9000 – 1987 version

The three models for quality management systems:

ISO 9001:1987 Model for quality assurance in design, development, production, installation, and servicing

ISO 9002:1987 Model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing

ISO 9003:1987 Model quality assurance in final inspection and test

Iso series 9000 1994 version
ISO series 9000 – 1994 version

ISO 9000:94

emphasized quality assurance via preventative actions, instead of just checking final product, and continued to require evidence of compliate with documented procesures.

Iso series 9000 2000 version
ISO series 9000 – 2000 version

ISO 9001:2000 combines the three standards ISO 9001, ISO 9002, ISO 9003

  • Now called ISO 9001:2000

  • The 2000 version

    • sought to make a radical change in thinking by actually placing the oncept of process management front and centre

    • Is to improve effectiveness via process perfoermance metrics – numerical measurement of the efectiveness of tasks and acitvities

Standards iso series 9000 2000
Standards ISO series 9000:2000

  • Assist an organization in developing, implementing, registering, and sustaining a appropriate QMS function independent of the specific product and /or services

Standards iso series 9000 20001
Standards ISO series 9000:2000

  • Includes eight principles that when followed should improve organizational performance

Standards iso series 9000 20002
Standards ISO series 9000:2000

8 principles QMS:

  • Customer focus

  • Leadreship

  • Involvement of People

  • Continual Improvement

  • Process Approach

  • Systems Approach

  • Factual Deision Making

  • Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships

8 principles qms
8 principles QMS

Principle 1: Customer focus

  • Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations.

8 principles qms1
8 principles QMS

Principle 1: Customer focus

  • Key benefits:

  • Increased revenue and market share obtained through flexible and fast responses to market opportunities.

  • Increased effectiveness in the use of the organization's resources to enhance customer satisfaction.

  • Improved customer loyalty leading to repeat business.

8 principles qms2
8 principles QMS

Principle 1: Customer focus

  • Applying the principle of customer focus typically leads to:

  • Researching and understanding customer needs and expectations.

  • Ensuring that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations.

8 principles qms3
8 principles QMS

  • Communicating customer needs and expectations throughout the organization.

  • Measuring customer satisfaction and acting on the results.

  • Systematically managing customer relationships.

  • Ensuring a balanced approach between satisfying customers and other interested parties (such as owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole).

8 principles qms4
8 principles QMS

Principle 2: Leadership

  • Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization. They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization's objectives.

  • Key benefits:

  • People will understand and be motivated towards the organization's goals and objectives.

  • Activities are evaluated, aligned and implemented in a unified way.

  • Miscommunication between levels of an organization will be minimized.

8 principles qms5
8 principles QMS

Principle 2: Leadership

  • Key benefits:

  • People will understand and be motivated towards the organization's goals and objectives.

  • Activities are evaluated, aligned and implemented in a unified way.

  • Miscommunication between levels of an organization will be minimized.

8 principles qms6
8 principles QMS

  • Applying the principle of leadership typically leads to:

  • Considering the needs of all interested parties including customers, owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole.

  • Establishing a clear vision of the organization's future.

  • Setting challenging goals and targets.

8 principles qms7
8 principles QMS

  • Creating and sustaining shared values, fairness and ethical role models at all levels of the organization.

  • Establishing trust and eliminating fear.

  • Providing people with the required resources, training and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability.

  • Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing people's contributions.

8 principles qms8
8 principles QMS

  • Creating and sustaining shared values, fairness and ethical role models at all levels of the organization.

  • Establishing trust and eliminating fear.

  • Providing people with the required resources, training and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability.

  • Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing people's contributions.

8 principles qms9
8principles QMS

Principle 3: Involvement of people

  • People at all levels are the essence of an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organization's benefit.

8 principles qms10
8 principles QMS

Key benefits:

  • Motivated, committed and involved people within the organization.

  • Innovation and creativity in furthering the organization's objectives.

  • People being accountable for their own performance.

  • People eager to participate in and contribute to continual improvement.

8 principles qms11
8 principles QMS

  • Applying the principle of involvement of people typically leads to:

  • People understanding the importance of their contribution and role in the organization.

  • People identifying constraints to their performance.

  • People accepting ownership of problems and their responsibility for solving them.

8 principles qms12
8 principles QMS

  • People evaluating their performance against their personal goals and objectives.

  • People actively seeking opportunities to enhance their competence, knowledge and experience.

  • People freely sharing knowledge and experience.

  • People openly discussing problems and issues.

8 principles qms13
8 principles QMS

Principle 4: Process approach

  • A desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are managed as a process.

  • Key benefits:

  • Lower costs and shorter cycle times through effective use of resources.

  • Improved, consistent and predictable results.

  • Focused and prioritized improvement opportunities.

8 principles qms14
8 principles QMS

Key benefits:

  • Lower costs and shorter cycle times through effective use of resources.

  • Improved, consistent and predictable results.

  • Focused and prioritized improvement opportunities.

8 principles qms15
8 principles QMS

  • Applying the principle of process approach typically leads to:

  • Systematically defining the activities necessary to obtain a desired result.

  • Establishing clear responsibility and accountability for managing key activities.

  • Analysing and measuring of the capability of key activities.

8 principles qms16
8 principles QMS

  • Identifying the interfaces of key activities within and between the functions of the organization.

  • Focusing on the factors such as resources, methods, and materials that will improve key activities of the organization.

  • Evaluating risks, consequences and impacts of activities on customers, suppliers and other interested parties.

8 principles qms17
8 principles QMS

Principle 5: System approach to management

  • Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organization's effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.

8 principles qms18
8 principles QMS

Key benefits:

  • Integration and alignment of the processes that will best achieve the desired results.

  • Ability to focus effort on the key processes.

  • Providing confidence to interested parties as to the consistency, effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.

8 principles qms19
8 principles QMS

  • Applying the principle of system approach to management typically leads to:

  • Structuring a system to achieve the organization's objectives in the most effective and efficient way.

  • Understanding the interdependencies between the processes of the system.

  • Structured approaches that harmonize and integrate processes.

8 principles qms20
8 principles QMS

  • Providing a better understanding of the roles and responsibilities necessary for achieving common objectives and thereby reducing cross-functional barriers.

  • Understanding organizational capabilities and establishing resource constraints prior to action.

  • Targeting and defining how specific activities within a system should operate.

  • Continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation.

8 principles qms21
8 principles QMS

Principle 6: Continual improvement

  • Continual improvement of the organization's overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organization.

8 principles qms22
8 principles QMS

Key benefits:

  • Performance advantage through improved organizational capabilities.

  • Alignment of improvement activities at all levels to an organization's strategic intent.

  • Flexibility to react quickly to opportunities.

8 principles qms23
8 principles QMS

Applying the principle of continual improvement typically leads to:

  • Employing a consistent organization-wide approach to continual improvement of the organization's performance.

  • Providing people with training in the methods and tools of continual improvement.

8 principles qms24
8 principles QMS

  • Making continual improvement of products, processes and systems an objective for every individual in the organization.

  • Establishing goals to guide, and measures to track, continual improvement.

  • Recognizing and acknowledging improvements.

8 principles qms25
8 principles QMS

Principle 7: Factual approach to decision making

  • Effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information

8 principles qms26
8 principles QMS

Key benefits:

  • Informed decisions.

  • An increased ability to demonstrate the effectiveness of past decisions through reference to factual records.

  • Increased ability to review, challenge and change opinions and decisions.

8 principles qms27
8 principles QMS

  • Applying the principle of factual approach to decision making typically leads to:

  • Ensuring that data and information are sufficiently accurate and reliable.

  • Making data accessible to those who need it.

  • Analysing data and information using valid methods.

  • Making decisions and taking action based on factual analysis, balanced with experience and intuition.

8 principles qms28
8 principles QMS

Principle 8: Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

  • An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value

8 principles qms29
8 principles QMS

Key benefits:

  • Increased ability to create value for both parties.

  • Flexibility and speed of joint responses to changing market or customer needs and expectations.

  • Optimization of costs and resources.

8 principles qms30
8 principles QMS

Applying the principles of mutually beneficial supplier relationships typically leads to:

  • Establishing relationships that balance short-term gains with long-term considerations.

  • Pooling of expertise and resources with partners.

  • Identifying and selecting key suppliers.

8 principles qms31
8 principles QMS

  • Clear and open communication.

  • Sharing information and future plans.

  • Establishing joint development and improvement activities.

  • Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing improvements and achievements by suppliers.

Standards iso series 9000 20003
Standards ISO series 9000:2000

The basic ISO 9000:2000 series consists of three documents. They are:

ISO 9000:2000 QMS. Fundamentals and vocabulary

ISO 9001:2000 QMS. Requirements

ISO 9004:200 QMS. Guidelines for performance improvements.

Iso 9001 2000
ISO 9001:2000

QMS adresses:

  • Identifying and sequencing processes

  • Monitoring, measuring and analysing processes

  • Documenting the QMS: quality manual, procedures, instructions, records

  • Controlling documents and records

Iso 9001 20001
ISO 9001:2000

Management responsibility addresses:

  • Top management evidecne of comitment to the QMS: comunicating, quality policy, quality objectives, management reviews, availability of resources

  • Top management support of customers focus

  • Quality planning

  • Responsibility of management representative

Iso 9001 20002
ISO 9001:2000

Resource management addresses:

  • Providing resources

  • Ensuring competence, awareness, and training of human resources

  • Providing suitable infrastructure and work environment

Iso 9001 20003
ISO 9001:2000

Processes for producing products and services (product realization) addresses:

  • Planning for product realization

  • Requirements for customer – related processes

  • Requirements for designing and developing product

  • Purcharing processes

  • Controlling production and services

  • Controlling device used for monitoring and measuring

Iso 9001 20004
ISO 9001:2000

Processes for measurement, analysis and improvement addresses:

  • Monitoring and measuring relative to satisfaction of customer, auditing of QMS, and monitoring, measuring and controlling product

  • Analysing data

  • Continually improving (corrective and preventive action)

Iso 9001 20005
ISO 9001:2000

When using ISO 9001:2000 as a systems model, remebmer the following things:

  • 8 quality management principles

  • Recognize that customer requirements

  • The information from the customer

  • The organisation have resources available for required activities, products processes are identified and documented

Iso 9001 20006
ISO 9001:2000

When using ISO 9001:2000 as a systems model, remebmer the following things:

  • Information from production output activities and feedback from customers provide indicators

  • Results from the management reviews are integrated int the management of resources, product activities

Iso 9001 20007
ISO 9001:2000

The benefits from implementation and certification of an ISO 9001 QMS:

  • Reduction in waste, rework and redundancy

  • Reduction in potential for external failures

  • Cost reductions

  • Increased productivity

Iso 9001 20008
ISO 9001:2000

The benefits from implementation and certification of an ISO 9001 QMS:

  • Improved performance

  • More orderly method of doing business

  • Improvement customer satisfaction – ordered audits

  • Marketing edge over suppliers that do not have a certified QMS

Iso 9001 20009
ISO 9001:2000

Some of the comments and criticismus of the ISO 9001:2000:

  • There is a tendency to overdo the quantity and complexity level of procedures

  • The standards makes no assurances about a companys products

  • Confusion often exists as to what should be includes in the quality manual

Iso 9001 200010
ISO 9001:2000

Some of the comments and criticismus of the ISO 9001:2000:

  • Understanding the difference between objective evidence and records is confusing

  • Failing to realize that product realization processes are different than quality QMS processes

  • Lack of understanding as to the difference between monitoring and measuring

Iso 9001 200011
ISO 9001:2000

Documenting the QMS:

Document: information and its supporting medium

Manual of quality: document describing the system of managing the organization

Plan of quality: document specifying what methods and related sources have to be used, who has to use them in a specified project, product in the process or in the agreement

Record: document describing achieved results, providing the proof of performed actions

Documenting the qms
Documenting the QMS

The QMS can be different from organization to organization by the following:

  • Size of organization and type of activity

  • Difficulty of processes and their interactions

  • Workers comptency and qualification

Documenting the qms1
Documenting the QMS

Pyramids of quality:

Level A: policy and objectives of quality,

Quality manual

Level B: Quidelines: documented of processes and activities QMS

Level C: instructions and other documents of the QMS quality plan, records, forms

Documenting the qms2
Documenting the QMS

Purpose and benefit of documenting QMS:

  • Describe the QMS of organization

  • Provides information to the groups with shared assignments

  • It arrenges to the employees the commitment of quality management

Documenting the qms3
Documenting the QMS

Purpose and benefit of documenting QMS:

  • It helps employees to understand their position withing the framework of organization

  • Provides understanding between employees and management

  • It sets objectives to achieve given requirements

Documenting the qms4
Documenting the QMS

Purpose and benefit of documenting QMS:

  • It says how to do things achieve given requirements

  • It sets clear and effective frame of activity

  • It provides stability of operation based on the documented processes

Documenting the qms5
Documenting the QMS

Purpose and benefit of documenting QMS:

  • It demostrates its possibilities to interested partied

  • It provides tha basic to audit the QMS

  • It provides tha basis to evaluate the effect and convenience of the QMS

Process management
Process management

ISO 9001model promoted the adoption of the process approach when developing, maintaining, and improving activities and services.

Proces defined as:

Any activity that transforms inputs into outputs.

Process management1
Process management

PM is using:

  • a collection of practices

  • Techniques and tools to implementing

  • Sustain and improve process effectiveness

Process management2
Process management

PM includes:

  • Planning and setting goals,

  • Establishing controls

  • Monitoring and measuring performance

  • Documenting,

  • Improvining cycle time, continually improving

Process management3
Process management

Process goals (PG) and objectives (PO):

  • PG are aims, intents, targets or ends

  • PG linked to the strategic plan of the organization

Process management4
Process management

  • PO represent the intende actions that are needed to achieve the process goals

  • PO may be supported by product or service specifications, work orders and so on

  • PO may also be based on maintaining the gains in a stable process or the objectives may support the resoution of a previous performance problem or deficiency

Process management5
Process management

Process objectives are monitored, measured, and reported for decisions as to actions needed.

Guidelines includes:

  • It must be know what value is desired, what to measure, how to measure it, unit of measure, device/method to be udes

  • How objectives are monitored is a function of who does itm how often it is to be done

Process management6
Process management

Process analysis:

  • Design a new process or change to a process

  • To prepare for an audit of a process or system

  • As part of the building project plans for a new facility

  • To aid in planning a preventive action

Process management7
Process management

Process analysis:

  • As a diagnostic technique for locating possible problem areas

  • As a tool for identifying non value added steps

  • As a technique for comparing before and after changes to a process

  • As a technique for helping quality improvement teams to understand a process

Process management8
Process management

Process maping/flowcharting used:

  • To comunicate and create understanding of a process flow

  • To identify non value added steps for potential elimination or modifiction

  • To serve as a procedure on how to perform a task or job

Process management9
Process management

Process maping/flowcharting used:

  • To serve as a part of the istructional material aused training a new performer

  • To envision the flow of a new or redesigned process

  • To serve as a simulator tool for a hypothecal walk through of a process

Process management10
Process management

What to look for in the Process map:

  • Branching steps exceed the number of steps in the main flow

  • Checking steps are missing or excessive

  • Steps take the process flow back and forth between different work units

  • Important steps are missing

  • There are steps that add no value to the end product or service

Process management11
Process management

  • There are redundant steps

  • Steps may need to be decomposed into several steps

  • There are dead ends

  • There are disconnects

  • Flow is too difficult to understand, confuses performens

Quality improvement
Quality improvement

  • Quality improvement action taken to improve a product, process or system that is not associated with nonconformity.

  • It requires a defined process for continual improvement and reduction in manufcturing variation.

Quality improvement1
Quality improvement

Defined processes may include:

  • Kaizen

  • Six sigma

  • PDCA Cycle

  • Statistical process control


  • Is a Japanese word:

    Kai – means change or school

    Zen – means good or wisdom

    It has come to mean a continual and incremental improvement (as opposed to reengineering)


In a kaizen event a cross-functional team focuses:

  • on a target process,

  • studies it,

  • collects and analyzes data,

  • discusses improvement alternatives,

  • and implements changes

    The intense event may consume three to five consutive days.

Six sigma

A process improvement initiative that uses a variety of techniquies and tools all focused on producing defect-free products and services.

Statisticaly speaking – sigma is a term indicating, to what extent a process varies from perfection

Six sigma1

  • The quantity of units processed divided into the number of defects actually occuring, multiplied by one milion results in defects per milion. Adding a 1,5 sigma shift in the mean results in the following defects per milion

Six sigma2

  • Six sigma , as a philosophy, translates to the organizational belief that it is posible to produce totally defect free product or services – albeit more a dream than a reality for most organisations.

Pdca cycles
PDCA Cycles

The problem solving model presented a general proces improvement model the plan – do - check – act (PDCA) cycle.

P - Plan – study the situation

- determine what needs to be done

- develop a plan and measurement

process for what needs to be done

Pdca cycles1
PDCA Cycles

D – Do: implement the plan

C – Check: - determine whether the plan worked

- study the results

A – Act: - if it worked, instiutionalize/ standartize

the change

- if it didnt, try somthing else

- continue the cycle

Statistical process control spc

Simply comparing the results of a process to itself over time is not sufficient i an environmental where external competitive pressures and an internal desire for continual improvement exist.

The focus of this section is on how to effectively analyze information to enable the organization to manage and improve processes – whether at the strategic or operational level.

Statistical process control spc1

Types of Control Charts:

A control charts id used to determine whther or not a process is stable, which means that it has predictable performance. By monitoring the output of a process over time, a control chart can be udes to assess whether the application of process changes or other adjustments have resultes in improvements

Statistical process control spc2

Types of Control Charts:

  • Individuals and moving range (X/MR), used when the sample size is one

  • Average and range or average and standard deviation (x-bar/R or x- bar/s) used when the sanple size is a rational subgroup

  • Exponentially weigted moving average (EWMA), used for smoothing out short term variance in order to detect longer – term trends

Statistical process control spc3

  • Cumulative sum (CUSUM), used to detect very small changes that occur over time

  • Hotellings t-squared, used to analyze multiple variables on one chart

    Attribute – type control charts include:

  • np charts, used to chart number of defective units where sample size is constans

Statistical process control spc4

  • p charts, used for tracking fraction of units defective, where sample size is not constant

  • c charts, used to chart number of defects in a constant sample size

  • u charts, for number of defects where sample size is changing

Quality methods and tools for improve
Quality methods and tools for improve

Quality tools a techniques:

  • 7 classic quality tools

  • 7 new quality tools

7 classical quality tools
7 classical quality tools

  • Flowchart

  • Check list

  • Cause and Effect Diagram (Ishikawa diagram)

  • Pareto Chart

  • Control Charts

  • Histogram

  • Scatter Diagrams

The quality costs
The quality costs

  • Is a method used by organization to show the financial impact of quality activities.

  • These costs must be true measure of the quality effort. Such an analysis provides:

    • A method of assessing the effectiveness of the management of quality

    • A means of determining problem areas, opprtunities, savings and action priorites

The quality costs1
The quality costs

Prevention costs:

  • Product or service requirements – setting specification or incoming materials, proesse, finished products/services

  • Quality planning – creation of plans for quality, reliability, operational, production, inspection

  • Quality assurance – creation and maintenance of the QMS

  • Training – deelopment, preparation and maintenance of programmes

The quality costs2
The quality costs

Appraisal costs are associated with the suppliers and customers evaluation of purchased materials, processes, products ad services to ensure they conform to speifications. They could include:

  • Verification – checking of incoming material, process set-up, products againts agreed specifications

  • Quality audits – check that the QMS is functioning correctly

  • Vendor rating – assessment and approval of suppiers, for products and services

The quality costs3
The quality costs

Failure costs can be split into those resulting form:

  • Internal failure costs

  • External failure costs

  • Total cost of quality

The quality costs4
The quality costs

PAF model (Process Cost Model):

COQ (cost of quality)

COC (cost of conformance)

CONC (cost of non conformance)


Total quality management tqm
Total Quality Management (TQM)


Total: Everyone should be involved

Quality: customers should be provided with an uniform quality product that meets their expectations

Management: the way Total Quality is conducted

Tqm definitions
TQM definitions

„Is the set of management processes and systems that create delighted customers through empowered employees, leading to hogher revenue and lower cost.“

The Juran Institute, Inc.

Tqm principles
TQM - principles

  • Commitment of everybody in the organization

  • The companys success depends on the participation of everybody

  • Opportunities for complete participation by everybody

  • Opportunities to do their job propertly

Tqm pre requisites
TQM pre-requisites

  • Leadership from the top

  • Effective management of the cost of quality

  • Focus on customer satisfaction

  • Continuous improvement of everyone in quality improvement

Quality management 3839606


  • W.E.Deming

  • J.M.Juran

  • K. Ishikawa

  • A.V. Feigenbaum

  • P.B. Crosby

Tqm feigenbaum
TQM - Feigenbaum

  • 10 benchmarks of Quality:

    • Q is a company – wide process

    • Q is what the customer says it is

    • Q and cost are sum not a difference

    • Requires individual and teamwork

    • Q is a way of managing

Tqm feingenbaum
TQM - Feingenbaum

  • 10 bechmarks of Quality

    • Q and innovation are mutually dependent

    • Q is an ethic

    • Requires continuous improvement

    • Is the most cost – effective, least capital – intensive route to productuvity

    • Is implemented with a tot system connected with customers and suppliers

Quality plans
Quality Plans

  • A quality plan is a document, or documents, that specify quality standards, practices, resources, specifications, and the sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, service, project, or contract.

Quality plans1
Quality Plans

Quality plans shoul define:

  • Objectives to be attained

  • Steps in the processes that constitute the operating practice or procedures of the organization

Quality plans2
Quality Plans

  • Allocation of responsibilities, authority, and resources during the different phases of the process or project

  • Specific documented standards, practices, procedures, and instuctions to be applied

Quality plans3
Quality Plans

  • Suitable testing, inspection, examination, and audit programs at appropriate stages

  • A documented procedure for changes and modifiacations to a quality plan as work proceeds

  • A method for measuring the achievement of the quality objecitves

  • Other actions necessary to meet the objectives

Benefits of tqm
Benefits of TQM

Following are some of the direct and indirect benefits that may result form TQM:

  • Strengthened competitive position

  • Adaptability to changing or emerging market conditions and to emvironmental and other goverment regulations

  • Higher productivity

  • Enhanced maket image

Benefits of tqm1
Benefits of TQM

  • Elimination of defects and waste

  • Reduced costs and better cos management

  • Higher profitability

  • Improved costumer focus nad satisfaction

  • Increased costumer loyalty and retention

Benefits of tqm2
Benefits of TQM

  • Increased job security

  • Improved employee morale

  • Enhanced shareholder and stakeholder value

  • Improved and innovative processes

Tqm implementation approaches
TQM Implementation Approaches

Following is a generic model for implementing TQM:

  • Top management learns abou and decides to commit to TQM

Tqm implementation approaches1
TQM Implementation Approaches

  • The ornganization assesses current culture, customer stisfacton, and quality management system

  • Top management identifies core values and principles to be used, and communicates them

Tqm implementation approaches2
TQM Implementation Approaches

  • A TQM master plan is developed on the basis of steps 1,2 and3

  • The organization identifies nad prioritizes costumer demands and aligns products and services to meet those demands

  • Management maps the critical processes through which the organization meets its costumer` needs

Tqm implementation approaches3
TQM Implementation Approaches

  • Management oversees the formation of teams for process improvement efforts

  • The momentum of the TQM effort is managed by steering committee

  • Managers contribute individually to the effort through hoshin planning, training, coaching or other methods

Tqm implementation approaches4
TQM Implementation Approaches

  • Daily process management and standardization take place

  • Progress is evaluated and the plan is revised as needed

  • Constant employee awareness and feedback on status are provided and a reward / recognition process is estabilished

Kaoru ishikawa1
Kaoru Ishikawa

  • What Is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way – he defines total quality control in the following ways>

  • Quality control (QC) is the responsibility of all workers and all divisions

  • Total quality control (TQC) is a group activity and cannot be done by individuals – teamwork

  • TQC will not ail is all members cooperate, form the president down to line workers and sales personnel

Kaoru ishikawa2
Kaoru Ishikawa

  • In TQC, middle management will be frequently talked about and criticized – be prepared

  • QC circle activities are a part of TQC

  • Do not confuse objectives with the means to attain them

  • TQC is not a miracle drug, its properties are more like those of Chinese herb medicine

Kaoru ishikawa3
Kaoru Ishikawa

To achieve total quality control, a thought revolution must occur:

  • Quality first – not short-term profit first

  • Consumer operation – not producer operation

  • The next process is your costumer – break down the barrier of sectionalism

  • Use facts and data to make presentations –utilize statistical methods

  • Respect for humanity as a management philosophy –full participatory management

  • Cross-function management

Kaoru ishikawa4
Kaoru Ishikawa

Ishikawa advocated four types of audit:

  • Audit by the president

  • Audit by the head of the unique –for example, division head or branch office manager

  • QC audit by the QC staff

  • Mutual QC audit

The seven classic quality tools
The seven classic quality tools

  • Flowchart

  • Check sheet

  • Cause-and-effect diagram

  • Pareto Chart

  • Control Charts

  • Histograms

  • Scatter Diagrams


  • Is a map of the sequence of steps and decision points in a process.

  • Flowcharting a process is a good starting point for a team, as it helps the group gain a common understanding of what is involved in the process.

  • Each team member typically has a perspective based on his/her own role, but may not have a full understanding of the entire process.

  • Can also point out missing, redundant, or erroneous steps.


An example of a flowchart is shown in Figure


A flowchart may be used to:

  • Document the as-is condition of a process

  • Reflect changes that are to be made to a process

  • Design an entirely new process

Check sheet
Check Sheet

  • Is a tool for gathering information on root causes.

  • With most of the tool, it facilitates the use of facts, rather than just opinions, in talking about and solving problems.

Check sheet1
Check Sheet

  • Check sheets are used to gather data on the frequency of occurrence of particular events or defects.

  • Some applications a more visually oriented data collection device.

Check sheet2
Check Sheet

The check sheet in figure illustrates at a glance what the largest problems are in terms of frequency of occurrence.

Cause and effect diagram
Cause-and-Effect Diagram

  • Also called an Ishikawa diagram

  • Alternatively called fishbone diagram

  • Is used to show the many different causes that may contribute to a particular problem

  • The problem, is started in a box at the right side of the chart and likely causes are listed around major categories that can lead to the effect

  • The four Ms are categories of problem sources typically used for manufacturing problems

Cause and effect diagram1
Cause-and-Effect Diagram

  • For service processes the four Ps are often used.

  • Provides a way of organizing what may be a long list of potential causes.

  • The items for the diagram may be created through a brainstorming session or by a review of the process flowchart to explore what can go wrong at each step

  • Is completed, data must be gathered to determine which of the causes is most likely to be acting on the problem being studied.

Cause and effect diagram2
Cause-and-Effect Diagram

Figure shows some of the reasons that outpatient clients may not be able to locate the X-ray department in a hospital

Pareto chart
Pareto Chart

  • Could also be used by a supervisor within each of the higher-cost work centers to pinpoint the particular machines that are the primary sources of trouble.

  • Note that although the z-axis of a Pareto chart is often the frequency of a problem.

  • It is also important to do a similar analysis based on costs

Control charts
Control Charts

  • Are a refinement of the original run chart

  • Serves two vital purposes as a data-gathering tool

  • It shows when a process is being

  • Influenced by special causes, creating an out-of-control condition

  • It indicates how a process behaves over time

  • Should be examined for nonrandom patterns in data points

  • As analysis of patterns can indicate what source of variation is most liklely

Pareto chart and control chart
Pareto Chart and Control Chart

Pareto chart

Control chart


  • While control charts allow seeing how a process performs over time

  • Provides a graphical picture of the frequency distribution of the data

  • Allows detection of distributions that do not demonstrate a typical bell-shaped curve

  • Show how the process spread and central tendency relate to process specifications


A histogram is shown in figure

Scatter diagrams
Scatter diagrams

  • Shows whether or not there is a correlation between two variables

  • Correlation does not necessarily mean a direct cause and effect relationship

  • If it appears that values for one of the variables can be predicted based on the value of another variable

Scatter diagrams1
Scatter diagrams

  • Shows whether or not there is a correlation between two variables.

  • Correlation does necessarily mean a direct cause and effect relationship

  • If it appears thet values for one of the variables can be variables can be predicted based on the value of another variable, then there is correlation

Scatter diagrams2
Scatter diagrams

Scatter diagram

Statistical process control
Statistical Process Control

  • The results of a process to itself over tine is not sufficient in an environment where external competitive pressures

  • The focus of this selection is on how to effectively analyze information

  • The organization to manage and improve processes – whether at the strategic or operation level

Statistical process control1
Statistical Process Control

Types of Control Charts

  • Control charts is used to determine whether or not a process is stabile

  • By monitoring the output of a processover time

Statistical process control2
Statistical Process Control

  • A control charts can by used to assess whether the application of process changes

  • If the process produces measurable pats

Statistical process control3
Statistical Process Control

There are many types of control charts:

  • Individuals and moving range (X/MR)

  • Average and range or average and standard deviation (x-bar/R or x-bar/ s)

  • Exponentially weighed moving average (EWMA)

  • Hotelling`s t-squared, used analyze multiple variables on chart

Statistical process control4
Statistical Process Control

  • Hotelling`s t-squared, used analyze multiple variables on chart

  • Cumulative sum (CUSUM)

Statistical process control5
Statistical Process Control

Attribute-type control charts include:

  • np charts

  • p charts

  • c charts

  • u charts

Statistical process control6
Statistical Process Control

  • np charts – used to chart number of defective units where sample size

  • p charts – used for tracking fraction of units defective, where sample size is not constants

  • c charts – used to chart number of defects in a constant sample size

  • u charts – for number of defects where sample size is changing

Statistical process control7
Statistical Process Control

Four guidelines are used as a basic test for randomness in control charts:

  • The points should have no visible pattern

  • Approximately two-thirds of the points should be close to the centerline

  • Some points should be close to the outer limit

  • An approximately equal number of points should fall above and bellow the centerline

Statistical process control8
Statistical Process Control

  • Control charts are also based on the concept of statistical probability

  • Control limits are based on the distribution for the type of data being analyzed

  • Control chard can be used for both analysis of a process

  • For process control purposes an alternative to control charts, pre-control, can sometimes be used

Pre control

  • Is an alternative to statistically based control charts

  • The specification range into four equal zones

  • zones:

  • Green zone – good

  • Yellow zone – caution

  • Red zone - defect

Pre control1

  • Is often used when a process is just being started

    The rules for pre-control:

  • Include both sampling frequency

  • With the sample frequency being varied according to how well the process

Process improvement model
Process Improvement Model

  • Select the process to improve

  • review current performance

  • Identify improvement needs or opportunities

  • Implement process changes

  • Evaluate progress

Process improvement model1
Process Improvement Model

  • This is done trough analysis of feedback from customers

  • Current performance measures are reviewed to ensure that they are adequate

  • Areas of the process where improvement would be most beneficial are selected

  • A plan is developed and communicated regarding changes in the process steps

  • Process performance is again reviewed to see heather the desired impact was achived

Process improvement model2
Process Improvement Model

Steps for problem are :

  • Leadership

  • Strategic

  • Customer

  • Involvement

  • Process

  • Data

  • Prevention

Process improvement model3
Process Improvement Model

Leadership –senior executives should oversee the process of continual improvement

Strategic – improvements should be targeted primarily at those processes that will provide a strategic gain

Costumer – process changes should be based on and/or take into account costumer feedback

Involvement – because of their knowledge and responsibility

Process improvement model4
Process Improvement Model

Process – approach all projects from the view that what is to be improved is a process that transforms inputs into outputs

Data – decisions such as what processes to improve and what to change to make it better

Prevention – because the idea is to create processes that are able to meet or exceed requirements

Documentation hierarchy
Documentation hierarchy

A quality management system documentation hierarchy

Procedures and work instructions
Procedures and Work Instructions

In documenting procedures are addressed:

  • Documentation is to conform to a standard

  • Documentation appropriately deployed and kept up to date

  • Documented system being followed by the people who produce the work

  • Are the required records kept

  • Documentation system periodically assessed for effectiveness

Procedures and work instructions1
Procedures and Work Instructions

Variations include:

  • Outline with bulleted text

  • Process map with annotations

  • Process map with adjacent outline text

  • Photographs depicting different stages in process with outline text

  • Checklists

The efqm excellence model
The EFQM Excellence Model

  • Regardless of sector, size, structure or maturity, to be successful, organisations need to establish an appropriate management framework.

  • The EFQM Excellence Model was introduced at the beginning of 1992 as the framework for assessing organisations for the European Quality Award. It is now the most widely used organisational framework in Europe and it has become the basis for the majority of national and regional Quality Awards.

The efqm excellence model1
The EFQM Excellence Model

  • The EFQM Excellence Model is a practical tool that can be used in a number of different ways:

  • As a tool for Self-Assessment

  • As a way to Benchmark with other organisations

  • As a guide to identify areas for Improvement

  • As the basis for a common Vocabulary and a way of thinking

  • As a Structure for the organisation's management system

The efqm excellence model2
The EFQM Excellence Model

The EFQM Excellence Model is a non-prescriptive framework based on 9 criteria:

  • Five of these are 'Enablers'

  • Four are 'Results'.

    The 'Enabler' criteria cover what an organisation does.

    The 'Results' criteria cover what an organisation achieves.

    'Results' are caused by 'Enablers' and 'Enablers' are improved using feedback from 'Results'.

The efqm excellence model3
The EFQM Excellence Model

The Model, which recognises there are many approaches to achieving sustainable excellence in all aspects of performance, is based on the premise that:

„ Excellent results with respect to Performance, Customers, People and Society are achieved through Leadership driving Policy and Strategy, that is delivered through People, Partnerships and Resources, and Processes“.

The efqm excellence model4
The EFQM Excellence Model

The EFQM Model is presented in diagram form below. The arrows emphasise the dynamic nature of the Model. They show innovation and learning helping to improve enablers that in turn lead to improved results.

The efqm excellence model6
The EFQM Excellence Model

Results orientation

  • Excellence is a constant exercise in keeping the interest of all stake holders in balance. These stake holders are the share holders or budgetproviders, people, customers, suppliers, partners and the society in general. Only in case we have concrete measurable results, we can say we did well.

The efqm excellence model7
The EFQM Excellence Model

Customer focus

  • The customer ( and only the customer) finally judges the quality of goods and service. Marketparticipation and customerloyalty are best considered through the eye of actual and potential customers: do we deliver what they need?

The efqm excellence model8
The EFQM Excellence Model

Leadership and constancy of purpose

  • Good leaders determine a clear objective for the organisation. They take care both of an environment and an organisation in which people can perform in excellence.

The efqm excellence model9
The EFQM Excellence Model

Management by processes and facts

  • You can only take the right decisions when you base yourself on the right figures. Besides this you make sure that processes are completely understood and mastered.

The efqm excellence model10
The EFQM Excellence Model

People development and involvement

  • People perform best in an organisation with clear values and a culture of trust and empowerment.

The efqm excellence model11
The EFQM Excellence Model

Continuous learning, innovation and improvement

  • The performance of an organisation is at its most when knowledge is managed and shared and when there is a culture directed to constant learning, innovation and improvement.

The efqm excellence model12
The EFQM Excellence Model

Partnership development

  • An organisation performs more efficiently when the relationships with other organisations are held in a win-win balance. Automatically there is trust, participating knowledge and a certain integration between both partners.

Quality management 3839606

Public responsibility

  • In the long run every organisation benefits from acting ethically. Try to exceed the expectations and the norm of society!