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Five Bases of Power (Influence). Reward power: Promising or granting rewards. Coercive power: Threats or actual punishment. Legitimate power: Based on position or formal authority. Expert power : Influence based on being perceived as having important knowledge or skill .

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five bases of power influence
Five Bases of Power (Influence)
  • Reward power:Promising or granting rewards.
  • Coercive power:Threats or actual punishment.
  • Legitimate power:Based on position or formal authority.
  • Expert power: Influence based on being perceived as having important knowledge or skill.
  • Referent power:Power of one’s personality (charisma).
bases types of power
Bases/Types of Power

Positional - Likely Response

Legitimate - Compliance

Reward - Compliance

Coercive - Resistance

Personal

Referent - Commitment

Expert - Commitment

bases types of power3
Bases/Types of Power

Industrial Workers’

Perceptions of Previous

Frequency of Use (Ranks)Students

Legitimate - 1 2

Reward - 3 3

Coercive - 5 5

Referent - 4 4

Expert - 2 1

more types
More Types?
  • Information?
  • Association?
general strategies for gaining power
General Strategies for Gaining Power

These strategies work best when there is

“non-substitutability”; i.e., others are dependent on you for these things.

  • Provide Scarce Resources
  • Provide Information
  • Resolve Important Problems
  • Reduce Uncertainty
politics in org decisions questionnaire
2 - Promotions

10-Hiring

8-Pay

6-Budget

4-Facilities

3-Delegation

1-Interdept. Coord.

9-Personnel Policies

11-Discipline

5-Work Appraisal

7-Grievances

Politics in Org. DecisionsQuestionnaire
organizational politics
Organizational Politics
  • Organizational politics are the activities managers engage in to increase their power and use it to achieve their goals.
    • Politics can be negative or positive.
      • Political activity helps get things done that are not specifically assigned in job descriptions.
      • Political activity allows a manager to gain support for an idea, e.g., a needed change.
political behavior
Political Behavior
  • Least Political (Positive Politics)
    • Personal Goals compatible with org’s.
    • Sanctioned use of power (Socialized)
      • e.g., developing skills, using referent power
  • Most Political (Negative Politics)
    • Personal and Org. goals incompatible
    • Unsanctioned use of power (Personalized)
      • e.g., withholding information, backstabbing, using coercive power
political strategies for gaining power
Political Strategies for Gaining Power
  • Networking

associate with the right people (people with the power or resources to help or hurt you).

    • Coalescing

combine resources with others to pursue common objectives

    • Co-opting

form alliances with those who are obstacles

managing organizational politics
Managing Organizational Politics
  • Have rules, policies when appropriate
  • Establish a climate of trust
  • Make goals clear
  • Measure and Reward performance
  • Stress teamwork over competition
  • Break-up negative political factions
major leadership theory issues
Major Leadership Theory Issues
  • Are leaders born that way or do they learn leadership behaviors? (Traits vs. Behaviors)
  • Is there one best way to lead in all situations? (Universal vs. Contingency)
    • If Contingency, what variables are important?
      • e.g., Followers, Task, Environment
  • How much should the leader allow subordinates to participate in decisions?
  • How can you improve leadership?
types of leadership theories

Universal

Contingent

Traits

Type I:

Trait Theories

Type III:

Fiedler

Leader

Attri-

butes

Stressed

Behaviors

Type II:

Ohio St., Mich.,

Lead. Grid

Type IV:

Hersey-Blanch.,

Path-Goal, Vroom

Types of Leadership Theories

Applicability

types of leadership theories13
Types of Leadership Theories
  • Trait Theories
    • e.g., Self-Confidence, Persistence
    • Don’t predict actions well
    • Don’t explain how traits translate into action
  • Universal Theories
    • Research disproves
  • Contingency-Style Theories (Type IV)
    • Most prevalent today
traits that generally differentiate leaders from nonleaders
Traits thatGenerally DifferentiateLeaders from Nonleaders
  • Drive
  • Desire to Lead
  • Honesty and Integrity
  • Self-Confidence
  • Intelligence
  • Job-Relevant Knowledge
2 basic leadership styles in types ii iii and iv theories
Category 1

Initiating Structure---

Job-Centered----------

Conc. for Production-

Task-Oriented---------

Directive----------------

Category 2

Consideration

Employee-Centered

Concern for People

Relationship-Oriented

Supportive

2 Basic Leadership Styles(in Types II, III, and IV Theories)
slide16

THE OHIO STATE MODEL OF LEADER BEHAVIORS

Low Initiating

Structure

High

Consideration

High Initiating

Structure

High

Consideration

High

Consideration

Low Initiating

Structure

Low

Consideration

High Initiating

Structure

Low

Consideration

Low

Low

High

Initiating Structure

blake mouton s leadership grid
Blake & Mouton’sLeadership Grid

High

Country Club Management

Team Management

Middle-of-the-Road Management

Concern for People

Authority-Compliance Management

Impoverished Management

Low

Low

Concern for Production

High

michigan studies

Michigan Studies

Employee-Centered Leaders

Job-Centered Leaders

(Leaders are supposedly Either on OR the other - These were viewed as opposite extremes of the same continuum - cf., Fiedler)

contingency approaches

Contingency Approaches

Identify relevant Situational Variables and what Leader Traits or Styles are appropriate for each.

situational variables
Fieldler

Leader-Member Relations

Task Structure

Leader Position Power

Hersey and Blanchard

Follower Readiness (Ability, Willingness)

Path-Goal Theory

Subordinates’ Ability, Personality

Environment

Task

WorkGroup

Organization Authority System

Vroom

What is needed to facilitate a Quality decision

What is needed to bolster employee Morale

Situational Variables
fiedler s contingency theory type iii theory
Situational Variables

Leader-Member Relations

Good vs. Poor

Task Structure

Structured vs. Unstructured

Leader Position Power

Strong vs. Weak

Leader Traits

Relationship-oriented (High LPC)

Task-oriented (Low LPC)

(Fiedler believed it is easier to change a situation than to change a leader)

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory (Type III Theory)
fiedler s contingency theory
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

Predictions:

Task-Oriented Leaders

-Most effective when situation is

either highly favorable or highly

unfavorable (research supports well)

Relationship-Oriented Leaders

-Most effective when situation is

moderately favorable

(less research support)

hersey and blanchard s situational theory type iv
Situational Variables

Followers’ Readiness / Maturity is due to :

Ability

Willingness

Leader Behaviors

Task Behavior (High or Low)

Relationship Behavior (High or Low)

4 Combinations Including:

Telling (H-L)

Selling (H-H)

Participating (L-H)

Delegating (L-L)

Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Theory (Type IV)
hersey blanchard s situational leadership
Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership

High

High

Relationship

and->->->

Low

Task

High

Task

<-<-<-and

High

Relationship

Participating

Selling

Relationship Behavior

Low

Relationship

<-<-<-and

Low

Task

High

Task

and->->->

Low

Relationship

Telling

Delegating

Low

Task Behavior

High

High

Low

Moderate

R4

R3

R2

R1

hersey and blanchard s situational leadership theory
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory

Participating

S3

Share ideas and

facilitate

decision making

Selling

S2

Explain decisions and

provide opportunity for

clarification

Delegating

S4

Turn over

responsibility for

decisions and

implementation

Telling

S1

Provide specific

instructions and closely

supervise performance

Low

Task Behavior

Low

High

Follower ReadinessHigh Moderate Low R4 R3 R2 R1

Follower-Directed Leader-Directed

path goal theory type iv
Path-Goal Theory (Type IV)

A leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates' motivation by:

  • Clarifying the subordinates' path (i.e., helping them reach the goal)
  • Giving things they value as rewards for reaching the goal
  • A major contribution is the “Achievement Oriented” leadership style in which the leader is able to provide goals that give subordinates an incentive
path goal theory
Situational Variables

Follower Characteristics

e.g, abilities, motivation

Workplace Characteristics

e.g., task difficulty

Leader Behaviors

Directive leadership

Achievement-Oriented leadership

Supportive leadership

Participative leadership

Path-Goal Theory
vroom s normative decision model leader participation type iv
Vroom’sNormative Decision Model (Leader-Participation) (Type IV)
  • Helps gauge the appropriate amount of participation for subordinates
  • 5 levels of leader participation styles ranging from highly autocratic to highly democratic.
vroom model
Vroom Model
  • Participation is permitted primarily to:
    • Enhance Decision Quality
    • Foster Subordinate Morale
    • Or Both
  • Series of questions asked about the situation (e.g., Does the leader have the expertise to solve the problem alone?, How important is subordinate commitment to the decision?)
vroom s normative decision model styles
Vroom’sNormative Decision Model Styles
  • AI – Leader makes decision alone
  • AII – Leader obtains information from subordinates, then makes decision alone
  • CI – Leader obtains suggestions from subordinates individually, then makes decision alone
  • CII – Leader obtains suggestions from subordinates collectively, then makes decision alone
  • G – Decision by group consensus
trends toward greater participation
Trends Toward Greater Participation

Reasons:

  • Education
  • Technology
  • Deregulation
  • Downsizing
  • Globalization
slide32

Newer Leadership Concepts

Not highly developed as leadership theories.

Often seen as beyond the bounds of traditional theories.

Stress what you might call the “Visionary Hero”

  • Transformational Leader
    • Brings about innovation and change.
    • Imagines how the future could be and inspires followers to work toward creating that future.
  • Charismatic Leader
    • A leader whose personality motivates subordinates to exceed their required performance level.
kinds of charismatic leaders
Kinds of Charismatic Leaders
  • Unethical Charismatics
    • control and manipulate followers
    • only want positive feedback
    • motivated by self-interest
  • Ethical Charismatics
    • recognize others’ contributions
    • open to positive and negative feedback
    • concerned with the interests of the group
superleadership and earlier views
Superleadership(and earlier views)
  • Strong Man – Authoritarian (similar to Type I)
  • Transactor - Motivates subordinates

using feedback and rewards (similar to

Types II – IV)

  • Visionary Hero - Inspires using emotion,

but still the decision maker

  • Superleader - Helps followers become

self-leaders or “superfollowers”

slide35

Yes People

Effective

(Super)

Followers

High

Sheep

Alienated

Followers

Low

Lo

TYPES OF FOLLOWERS

Employee Activity/

Initiative

Survivors

High

Employee Critical Thinking

implications of leadership theories
Implications of Leadership Theories
  • Know your preferred Style. (Fiedler)
  • Know and care about your Followers. (Hersey & Blanchard, Path-Goal)
  • Know and care about the Task. (Fiedler, Path-Goal)
  • Understand the Environment affecting you and your followers. (Path-Goal)
  • Fit your Style to your Followers, the Task, and the Environment. (This may include making changes in S, F, T, or E.)
  • Enhance your Referent and Expert Power (Charismatic, etc.)
  • Visualize the Future and prepare your Followers for it (Charismatic, Superleadership)