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KINGDOM MONERA

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  1. KINGDOM MONERA The Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

  2. Characteristics of Bacteria • Prokaryote means “before a nucleus.” They are single-celled organisms and the smallest, simplest organisms. • This kingdom is subdivided into two kingdoms: • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria

  3. i. Archaebacteria– “achaio” comes from the Greek means “ancient”.Found in anaerobic conditions with high salt concentrations, high temperatures and a low pH. ii. Eubacteria – This group includes the true bacteria and is the largest and most successful of the two kingdoms.

  4. Bacteria all share these five characteristics -All bacteria are single-celled -All bacteria are prokaryotes. Their DNA is not surrounded by a membrane. -Cell organelles in bacteria are not surrounded by membranes. -The DNA of bacteria is made of a single chromosome. - Bacteria are the smallest organisms measuring from 1-10 micrometres.

  5. Kingdom Eubacteria • Unicellular (single-cell) • Prokaryotes (no membrane-bound organelles) • Cell Walls contain peptidoglycan, not cellulose

  6. It contains a cell wall that provides support and protection for the contents of the cell. • The cytoplasm contains ribosomes, responsible for the formation of proteins and DNA. • The DNA forms a single chromosome and forms a ring. • Some bacteria have a flagella that act like propellers moving the organism forward. • Bacteria are classified by their shape, reaction to being stained, nutrition and respiration.

  7. Shape of Eubacteria

  8. Bacterial Cell Shape • Bacteria can be classified by shape. -A spherical cell is called a coccus (pl. cocci) -A rod-shaped cell is called a bacillus (pl. bacilli) -A spiral-shaped cell is called a spirillum (pl. spirilla)

  9. Cocci living as separate cells are called monococci, pairs are called diplococci, chains are called streptococci, and grapelike clusters are called staphlococci. • Bacilli also exist as single cells, pairs (diplobacilli), or chains (streptobacilli). • Spiral bacteria exist only as single cells. • Staining bacteria results in two forms: gram-positive (purple) vs. gram negative (pink).

  10. Grouping • Diplo- Pairs • Streptos- Chains • Staphylo- Clusters http://genome.microbio.uab.edu/strep/info/strep5.gif http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/00520/gallery/thumbnails/thumb_diplococcus.jpg

  11. These are the general shapes:

  12. Examples of Spherical-shaped cells Coccus (sng) , cocci (pl)

  13. Coccus http://www.uleth.ca/bio/bio1010/Coccus1.jpg

  14. A Group of Two is referred to as: Diplo…….. This is diplococccus

  15. A Cluster of cells is referred to as: Staphylo…. This is Staphylococcus

  16. What a slide of Typical coccus looks like in a microscope.

  17. Streptococcus aurelius

  18. Strep Throat

  19. Staph Infection

  20. Rod-shaped cells Bacillus (sng) , Bacilli (pl)

  21. Typical Bacillus

  22. Bacillus

  23. Typical Bacillus in a Microscope

  24. Spiral-shaped cells Spirillum (sng) , Spirlli (pl)

  25. Spirochetes

  26. StrukturdanFungsiUtama Sel Bakteri

  27. StrukturUtamaBakteri Membran Plasma tersusunatasfosfolipiddan protein, bersifatsemipermeable. Dinding Sel tersusunatasmukopolisakaridadanpeptidoglikan (protein danpolisakarida) Sitoplasma tersusunatas air, asamnukleat, protein, karbohidrat, lemak.

  28. Ribosome sintesis protein DNA materigenetik Granulapenyimpanan

  29. StrukturTambahanBakteri Kapsul tersusunataspolisakaridadan air yang berfungsi untukmembantumelekatpadapermukaanselbakterilainnya. Cth: Streptococcus mutans Pertahananbakteri Flagellum Monotrik : flagellum padabakteriberjumlahsatu Lofotrik : flagella padasatusisi Amfitrik : flagella atau flagellum dikeduaujung Peritrik : flagella tersebardiseluruhpermukaansel

  30. StrukturTambahanBakteri Klorosom pigmenklorofiluntukprosesfotosintesis. Cth: Chlorobium. Vakuola Gas terdapatpadabakteri yang hidupdi air danmelakukanfotosintesis. Endospora bentukistirahat/latenbakteri. Cth : Bacillus antracis, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum

  31. Life Cycle

  32. BakteriHeterotrof BakteriSaprofit bakteri yang memperolehmakanandarisisaorganisme lain cth: Eschericiacolli, Lactobacillus bulgaricus BakteriParasit bakteri yang memperolehmakanandariinangnya. Inangtempathidupbakteriadalahtumbuhan, hewanataumanusia. Cth: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  33. BakteriAutotrof Auto = diri, trophos = memakan Bakteri yang mampumembuatmakanansendiri. BakteriFotoautotrof bakteri yang menggunakanenergicahayamatahariuntukmembuatmakanannya. Cth: Thiocytstis sp. BakteriKemoautotrof menggunakanenergikimia (prosesoksidasisenyawaanorganik) untukmensintesismakanannya. Cth: NitrosomonasdanNitrosococcus

  34. Nutrition • Most eubacteria are heterotrophs and obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules from their environment. Some are parasites, absorbing nutrients from living organisms. Others are saprobes, decomposing dead organic matter.

  35. BakteriAerob Membutuhkanoksigenbebasuntukmemperolehenerginya. Cth: Nitrosomonas, Nitrosoccus. Nitrosomonas : amonia – nitrit Nitrobacter : nitrit - nitrat

  36. BakteriAnaerob TidakMembutuhkanoksigenbebasuntukmemperolehenerginya. Energi yang diperolehbersumberdarifermentasi. BakteriAnerobObligat hanyadapathidupjikatidakadaoksigen. Cth: Clostridium botulinum BakteriAnaerobFakultatif dapathidupjikaadaoksigenmaupuntidakadaoksigen. Cth : Eschericiacolli

  37. Respiration • If respiration requires oxygen, bacteria are termed aerobes. If oxygen is absolutely necessary for survival they are called obligate aerobes. • Bacteria that carry out respiration without oxygen are called anaerobes. Presence of oxygen kills some bacteria and these are called obligate anaerobes. (example- Clostridium botulinum) • Another group of bacteria can survive with or without oxygen and they are called facultative anaerobes.

  38. Gram Stain • A staining method to differentiate bacteria • Gram-negative refers to the inability to retain the deep violet dye • Gram-positive refers to the ability to retain the deep violet dye

  39. BakteriberdasarkanLap.PeptidoglikanpadaDinding Sel Bakteri gram positif (dindingseldenganlap.peptidoglikan yang tebal, berwarnaungu). Cth: Neisseriagonorrhoeae, Treponemapallidum, Vibriocholerae Bakteri gram negatif (dindingseldenganlap.peptidoglikan yang tipis, berwarnamerahmuda). Cth: Streptococcus mutans, Eschericia coli.

  40. Gram Staining

  41. Gram Negative cells Gram Positive Cells

  42. Bacteria Photos Clostridium perfringes Anthrax

  43. Bacteria Photos E. coli Clostridium tetani

  44. Bacteria Photos Neisseria gonorrhoeae Staphylococcus aureus

  45. Bacteria Photos Strep

  46. Reproduction

  47. Reproduction 1. By binary fission • a bacterium may undergo fission every 10-20 minutes 2. Conjugation • part of a chromosome is transferred from donor cell to recipient through pilus 3. Transformation • living cell picks up fragments of DNA released by dead cells 4. Transduction • fragments of DNA carried from one cell to another by viruses

  48. [1] Asexual Reproduction • Binary Fission – cells grow in size the split in two…. Genetically identical

  49. [2] Sexual Reproduction (exchanging DNA) a. Conjugation • two bacteria join together and exchange portions of DNA. Ex: E.colli

  50. b. Transformation DNA is taken in by a bacterium, and then used.