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  2. VOCABULARY • Aerobic respiration • Antibiotic • Antiseptic • Bacterial culture • Binary fission • Conjugation • Classification • Disinfectant • Ecological role • Fermentation • Motility • Mutation • Prokaryote • Resistant/resistance

  3. READING • Basic structure of prokaryotic cell – p.360-361 • Unifying characteristics – p.361-364 • Form, distribution, motility, ecological role, nutrition, human diseases – p.361-366, 369-372 • Fermentation, aerobic respiration, photosynthesis in Monerans – p.365-367 • How bacterial decomposers and parasites obtain their food – p.365 • Antibiotics, disinfectants, antiseptics – p.374 • Antibiotic resistance – p.368 • Beneficial roles – p370-372


  5. Introduction to Bacteria • 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: • Bacteria • -Get food from an outside source • Blue-green Bacteria • -Make their own food

  6. BACTERIA • Bacteria -small one celled monerans • Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment They are found almost everywhere: • -water -air • -soil -food • -skin -inside the body • -on most objects

  7. 3 Shapes of Bacteria Bacteria are classified by shape into 3 groups: Spiral: spirilla rod-shaped:bacilli, bacillus Round: cocci

  8. Bacillus anthracis – (bacillus) Neisseria meningitidis (coccus) Leptospira interrogans – (spirilla) 3 Shapes of Bacteria

  9. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell • Capsule • Cell wall • Ribosomes • Nucleoid • Flagella • Pilli • Cytoplasm

  10. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Capsule • keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to food or other cells

  11. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Cell wall • Thick outer covering that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell

  12. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Ribosomes • cell part where proteins are made • Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs

  13. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Nucleoid • a ring made up of DNA

  14. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Flagella • a whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion

  15. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Pilli • hollow hair-like structures made of protein • allows bacteria to attach to other cells. • Pilli-singular • Pillus-plural

  16. 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Cytoplasm • clear jelly-like material that makes up most of the cell

  17. Bacterial Growth

  18. Bacteria Reproduce Quickly • In optimal conditions, an E. coli bacteria can double every 20 minutes. • The time it takes a bacteria to double is known as the Generation time

  19. A Growth Table

  20. At just over 6.5 hours you have over 1 MILLION E. coli. Imagine that growing on your sandwich

  21. This type of growth has a special name. It is known as Exponential growth. • Exponential growth starts out slow but once it gets going it grows quickly.

  22. Lets Graph it! # of E. coli Time

  23. # of E. coli versus Time # of E. coli Time (min)

  24. Salmonella • Salmonella has a generation time of about 30 minutes • It can be found on chicken and can make you quite sick. • Luckily it takes about 10 million of them to get sick so that’s quite a few.

  25. Lets calculate how long it takes for bacteria to reach 10,000,000 if we have 1000 on our chicken sandwich.

  26. The Special Equation • There is a special equation to use with exponential growth N = N02t/T • N = is the number of bacteria • N0 = the number of bacteria you start with • T = the amount of time it takes to double • t = the actual time

  27. In ideal optimal conditions in about 3 days bacteria could reproduce sooooo much that they would weigh more than our planet.

  28. Lucky for us • Lucky for us those conditions don’t usually exist, and a graph of bacterial growth generally looks like this

  29. Reproduction of Bacteria • Binary Fission-the process of one organism dividing into two organisms • Fission is a type of asexual reproduction • Asexual reproduction-reproduction of a living thing from only one parent How?... The one main (circular) chromosome makes a copy of itself Then it divides into two

  30. Reproduction of Bacteria BINARY FISSION Completed Bacteria dividing

  31. Reproduction of Bacteria • The time of reproduction depends on how desirable the conditions are • Bacteria can rapidly reproduce themselves in warm, dark, and moist conditions • Some can reproduce every 20 minutes • (one bacteria could be an ancestor to one million bacteria in six hours)

  32. Bacterial Cell & Nucleiod DNA Ring DNA replication Cell wall synthesis Binary Fission Cell separation

  33. Bacteria Survival • Endospore- • a thick celled structure that forms inside • the cell • they are the major cause of food poisoning • allows the bacteria to survive for many years • they can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions • it encloses all the nuclear materials • and some cytoplasm

  34. Bacteria Survival Bacillus subtilis Endospore-the black section in the middle • highly resistant structures • can withstand radiation, UV light, and boiling at 120oC for 15 minutes.

  35. Bacteria Survival – Food sources • parasites–bacteria that feed on living things • saprophytes–use dead materials for food (exclusively) • decomposers –get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals • important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them

  36. Harmful Bacteria • some bacteria cause diseases • Animals can pass diseases to humans • Communicable Disease – • Disease passed from one organism to another • This can happen in several ways: • Air • Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush • Drinking water that contains bacteria

  37. Harmful Bacteria Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas)

  38. Helpful Bacteria • Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow • Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay • Most are used to make antibiotics • Some bacteria help make insulin • Used to make industrial chemicals

  39. Helpful Bacteria E.coli on small intestines

  40. Helpful Bacteria • Used to treat sewage • Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess. • foods like yogurt, cottage & Swiss cheese, sour cream, buttermilk are made from bacteria that grows in milk

  41. Controlling Bacteria 3 ways to control bacteria: 1) Canning-the process of sealing food in airtight cans or jars after killing bacteria • endospores are killed during this process 2) Pasteurization-process of heating milk to kill harmful bacteria 3) Dehydration-removing water from food • Bacteria can’t grow when H2O is removed • example: uncooked noodles & cold cereal

  42. Controlling Bacteria Antiseptic vs. Disinfectants Antiseptic- chemicals that kill bacteria on living things • means – “against infection” Examples: iodine, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, soap, mouthwash Disinfectants- stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects or nonliving things

  43. BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA Autotrophs – make their own food through photosynthesis • larger than most bacterial cells • commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams • Some live in salt water, snow, and acid water of hot springs • food source for animals that live in the water

  44. BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA • can be toxic to humans and animals Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water

  45. Bacillus anthracis - rod, vegetative stage prokaryote (bacterium)Image Number: 21185A

  46. Neisseria meningitidis - coccus prokaryote (bacterium)Image Number: 97214E

  47. Leptospira interrogans - spiral shaped prokaryote (spirochete)