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Chapter 3. Telecommunication Architectures and Standard. Agenda. Network architectures & standards Standard-making organizations Pros and cons of standards Open System Interconnection Model (OSI) TCP/IP Manufacturer architecture Pros and cons of architecture. Network Architectures.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Telecommunication Architectures and Standard

agenda
Agenda
  • Network architectures & standards
  • Standard-making organizations
  • Pros and cons of standards
  • Open System Interconnection Model (OSI)
  • TCP/IP
  • Manufacturer architecture
  • Pros and cons of architecture
network architectures
Network Architectures
  • Design principles for
    • Functions
    • Data format
    • Procedures
  • Describe “what”
communication standards
Communication Standards
  • Rules for compatibility
  • Specify “how”
needs for architectures and standards
Needs for Architectures and Standards
  • Complex communication systems
  • Maintenance and future growth
  • Connectivity between network devices
  • Distributed processing systems
  • Diagnostic and performance management
standards making organizations
Standards-Making Organizations
  • International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization Section (ITU-T)
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • American National Standard Institute (ANSI)
  • Electrical Industries Association (EIA)
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
standards
Standards
  • V.
    • Connection of digital equipment to telephone analog line
  • X.
    • Connection of digital equipment to telephone digital line
    • X.400
      • Allow communication between incompatible electronic mail systems
    • X.500
      • Create and maintain a directory of e-mail users and their network addresses
pros and cons of standards
Pros and Cons of Standards
  • Pros
    • Compatibility between vendors
    • Fewer products
  • Cons
    • Slow processing
    • Obsolescence
    • Freezing technology
    • Discouraging innovation
open system interconnection model
Open System Interconnection Model
  • International Organization for Standardization
  • Interconnection of Dissimilar Network
  • Seven Layers
    • Application
    • Presentation
    • Session Control
    • Transport Control
    • Network Control
    • Data Link Control
    • Physical Link Control
application layer
Application Layer
  • Determine data to be send at originating end
  • Process data at receiving end
presentation layer
Presentation Layer
  • Change data format
  • Compression/expansion
  • Encryption/decryption
session control layer
Session Control Layer
  • Communication rules
  • Rate of transmission
  • Accounting functions
transport control layer
Transport Control Layer
  • Identify receiving address
  • Calculate and check checksum of entire message
network control layer
Network Control Layer
  • Route message
  • Dissemble and assemble data (transmission unit)
  • Accounting functions
data link control unit
Data Link Control Unit
  • Determine line usage
  • Establish link between two ends
  • Detect and correct transmission error
  • Add header and trailer
  • Divide data unit for transmission
physical link control layer
Physical Link Control Layer
  • Hardware specification
  • Electrical characteristics
tcp ip protocol
TCP/IP Protocol
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
  • Advanced Research Project Agency
  • ARPANET
tcp ip structure
TCP/IP Structure
  • Application layer
    • User application
  • Transport layer (TCP protocol)
    • Communication, error-checking procedure
  • Internet layer (IP protocol)
    • Routing
  • Network access layer
    • Connection
  • Physical
    • Physical & electrical interface
manufacturers architecture
Manufacturers’ Architecture
  • Objectives
    • Base for future products
    • Control customers
  • Types
    • IBM: Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
    • Digital Equipment Corporation: Digital Network Architecture (DNA)
pros and cons of layered architectures
Pros and Cons of Layered Architectures
  • Pros
    • Modularize structure for simplify maintenance
    • Specify interfaces for easy change & future growth
  • Cons
    • Complex Rules
    • Cost of sophisticated intelligence
    • Complex software
points to remember
Points to Remember
  • Network architectures & standards
  • Standard-making organizations
  • Pros and cons of standards
  • Open System Interconnection Model (OSI)
  • TCP/IP
  • Manufacturer architecture
  • Pros and cons of architecture
discussion
Discussion
  • What are your thoughts on selecting network equipment for an organization?
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