The Great Migration & the Rebellions of 1837-38 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Great Migration & the Rebellions of 1837-38

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  1. The Great Migration& the Rebellions of 1837-38

  2. Immigration to BNA 1815-1850 • Between 1815 – 1850 lots of people from Britain came to BNA • This is known as “The Great Migration” • This migration changed BNA. • Before the 1840 most of UC • & LC was Canadien. • After 1850, most people • were British.

  3. What triggered the Great Migration? • Poverty in Britain • Left for economic reasons • UNEMPLOYMENT: Many lost jobs b/c of the Industrial revolution- machines took over many jobs of the people • Many lost farms • The end of the Napoleonic Wars meant an economic slowdown • FAMINE!! • Opportunities in the Colonies • BNA meant a place for people to start over • EMIGRATION: Br. encouraged people to move as a way to end its economic troubles and encourage loyalty to Britain in the colonies

  4. What impacts did migration have? • More farms • Settlers cleared land for farms • More British people • There was a huge increase in the population in BNA- especially in Upper Canada • In Upper Canada- In Lower Canada • 1830 - about 180,000 - 1830- about 450,000 • 1840 - about 400,000 - 1840- about 650,000 • 1850- about 1 million - 1850- about 850,000

  5. Immigrant Ships • Diseases on the ships: many did not survive the voyage • CRAMMED into the ships or cargo areas • People brought food to cook their own meals • Trips that were to take 5-6 wks were 10-11 wks (weather) • People thought cholera was sent by Britain to kill off and demoralize the Canadiens • The government set up a quarantine at Grosse Ile about 50 km from Quebec. All immigrants had to report there • Many Irish orphans at Grosse Ile were adopted by Canadien families

  6. Grosse Ile • Grosse-Ile is connected to the Great Migration as a place of hope and tragedy. Why? • Place of hope: it was a place that the ill could recover from disease • Place of tragedy: Many ill died here. Leaving many orphans. • Go to • Where is Gorsse Ile? • What is Grosse Ile? • Why is this important in Canadian history?

  7. Immigration to BNA 1815-1850 • Leaders in Upper & Lower Canada and in Nova Scotia wanted an end to Britain's ruling in BNA • BNA was ready for a democratic government so they had more autonomy over their destiny.

  8. Learning from America: • Looking to the US many in BNA wanted liberty or freedom from oppressive policies • 3pt Approach : Liberty - The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions • In 1776, America declared independence from Britain & King George III

  9. Learning from America: Boston Tea Party No Taxation Without Representation!!!! Britain shouldn’t have so much control!!

  10. Learning from America: Boston Tea Party • Led to Britain installing the ‘Intolerable Acts’ which: -Took away local Self-government -Ended economic activity in Boston • Led to the American Revolution in 1775

  11. The Reformers- Who are they? The reformers wanted to change the rules and arrangements in BNA so that they would have the authority to make the decisions that affected their lives

  12. Democratic Government Colonial vs Democratic Colonial Government

  13. In a Democracy? Who has the power? In British North America? Britain holds the power BNA had colonial government Britain appointed people who made the decisions including a governor and councils Each colony also had an elected assembly that advised the governor and council but has no real power Voters elect people who have the power to make decisions Therefore, voters have power In BNA reformers wanted the people who lived in the colonies to have the power Wanted elected assemblies to control councils, not governors Wanted councils, not governors to have control over decisions

  14. Lower Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Why they occurred……… 1. Wanted Responsible Government 2. Britain didn’t listen 3. French Canadiens were unhappy with: - agricultural conditions - land system

  15. Lower Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 “L’Assemblee des sixcomtes, in 1837”


  17. Lower and Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38

  18. Battle of Saint-Denis Was a Patriote Win

  19. Battle of Saint-Charles The Patriotes Lost

  20. Battle of Saint-Eustache The Patriotes Lost


  22. Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Why they occurred……… 1. Wanted responsible government 2. Britain didn’t listen 3. Economic recession (hardship) & crop failures 4. Rebellions in Lower Canada provided an opportunity to rebel in UC

  23. Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 • Much smaller than Lower Canada’s rebellion • Wanted a government like the US • Led by William Lyon Mackenzie

  24. Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 • Started in Montgomery’s Tavern • 500 poorly armed rebels marched down Yonge Street • Loyalist force burned down Montgomery’s Tavern and won • Mackenzie’s rebels were very poorly organized

  25. Lower and Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38

  26. After the LC & UC Rebellions • Britain sent out Lord Durham (Radical Jack) to investigate the rebellions • He expelled some rebels and investigated UC’s and LC’sdiscontent • Wrote “Durham’s Report” which became an important document in Quebec’s and Canada’s history

  27. Durham’s Report “I expected to find a contest between a government and a people. Instead, I found two nations warring within the bosom of a single state” – Lord Durham • He saw the French Canadiens as backwards as they tried to preserve their old way of life • He didn’t want to give the French Canadiens power

  28. Split Page Note Taking (Pg163) The Rebellions: Lord Durham and The Durham Report

  29. The Rebellions: Lord Durham and The Durham Report

  30. Union Act 1841 AIM: -To unite the two colonies into a single unit, and to give the English-speaking people control of the newly named colony’s -Made the United Province of Canada with two parts: Canada East and Canada West Government -Canada East and Canada West received the same amount of representatives in the Legislative Assembly even though Canada East (Lower Canada) had a much bigger population Executive Councils appointed by the Governor General from the elected Legislative Assembly

  31. The Act of Union (1841) Lower Canada had a bigger population

  32. Split Page Note Taking (Pg164) The Act of Union 1841

  33. Split Page Note Taking (Pg164) The Act of Union 1841

  34. 1846 Britain Changes its Trading Policy • Britain adopts Free Trade Before1846: Gave special trading conditions to the colonies After 1846: Gave no special trading conditions to anyone -The colonies weren’t as important to Britain

  35. Please Compare and Contrast the Constitutional Act of 1791(pg120) and Responsible Gov’t of 1848 (pg166)

  36. Rebellion Losses Bill 1849 -Compensate lower Canadians for rebellion loses (property damaged or destroyed) -Heal the relationship between French and English speaking Canadians -Governor General Lord Elgin didn’t like the Bill, but he had to sign it (that is responsible gov’t) -What do you think loyalist English speaking Canadians thought of the bill?

  37. -English speaking Tories burned down the ParliamentBuildings in Montreal -Riots in Toronto and Kingston -Some wanted for the colony to join the United States (Annexation)