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Americans join war effort

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  1. Americans join war effort Needed soldiers • 5 million volunteered • 10 million drafted Labor shortage at home • 6 million women join labor force • 2 million minorities hired

  2. Industrial response • Automobile plants were converted to build tanks, armored vehicles, etc. • Factories across nation convert to war production • Shipbuilder Henry J Kaiser • Liberty ships could be built in 2 weeks • 2,700 would be built during the war

  3. The Homefront The United States gov’t stirs patriotic feelings Movies are used to build morale Propaganda is used to keep war effort going Education for Death Racist Propaganda cartoon civilians rationed goods/supplies and planted “Victory Gardens” http://www.ethicurean.com/wp-content/uploads/image/plant-victory-garden.jpg

  4. Propaganda http://z.about.com/d/politicalhumor/1/0/R/O/propaganda_quiet.jpg http://www.teacheroz.com/images/homes.gif

  5. http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/Hist427/1940sphotos/posters/ridewithhitler.jpghttp://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/Hist427/1940sphotos/posters/ridewithhitler.jpg http://www.usmm.org/p/looselips.jpg

  6. Women Enter the Workforce http://www.edupics.com/en-coloring-pictures-pages-photo-rosie-the-riveter-p7219.jpg http://www.rosietheriveterphotos.com/images/070705172615_Woman_Working_a_War_Job_LG.jpg

  7. Japanese Americans Interned Many Americans distrusted Japanese –Americans (Nisei) Thousands of Japanese -Americans were forced into Internment Camps in the Midwest throughout WWII http://www.library.wwu.edu/ref/images/japanese-evacuation.jpg

  8. http://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/imagefolder/japaneseinternment.jpghttp://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/imagefolder/japaneseinternment.jpg

  9. Internment Camp http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/wwcod/image8-2.gif

  10. http://education.eastwestcenter.org/asiapacificed/ph2006/PH2006projects/7_clip_image001.jpghttp://education.eastwestcenter.org/asiapacificed/ph2006/PH2006projects/7_clip_image001.jpg

  11. With the U.S. now at war • We’ll divide our study of the war into 2 geographic areas: • The European Theater of Operations (the ETO)…Europe and No. Africa • The Pacific Theater of Operations (the PTO)

  12. The Nazis had broken their pact w/USSR:Operation Barbarossa (June 1941)

  13. By 1942 : War not going well for the Allies: • Germany controlled all of Europe and N. Africa and were deep into Russia

  14. Gloomy Prospects for the Allies The chain of spectacular victories disguised a fatal weakness within the Axis alliance: Japan and Germany fought separate wars, they never coordinated strategies. The early defeats also obscured the Allies’ strengths: The manpower of the Soviet Union and the productive capacity of the U.S.

  15. Turning Points of the War: The Battle of Stalingrad The Pivotal battle in the war in Europe The German Army (“Wehrmacht”) had already lost 2 million men on the eastern front. In 1942-43, a German army of over 300,000 was defeated and captured at the Battle of Stalingrad. Scenes from Enemy at the Gates:Enemy at the Gates The Germans then lost the battle of Kursk and began a long retreat. The Red Army crossed into Poland in January 1944.

  16. Stalingrad House by house… Brick by brick

  17. North Africa: El Alamein In 1942 German forces tried to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal American invasion: “Operation Torch” Yanks and Brits drove Germans out Turning point in N. Africa: El Alamein

  18. Defeat of Italy (1943) Invasion of Sicily opened door for invasion of Italy Allies fought their way north up the “boot” Mussolini forced to flee… captured , executed, and hung by his heels by anti-Mussolini Italians

  19. The Doolittle Raid • April, 1942 • Col. Jimmy Doolittle (related to me!) put together mission to bomb Tokyo & other targets IN Japan • Bombers taking off a carrier? • Military value? Not much • Psychological value? HUGE moral boost for American public • Movie Trailer: Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo

  20. The Pacific Theater: Early Battles American Forces halted the Japanese advance in two decisive naval / air battles. Coral Sea (May 1942) U.S. stopped a fleet carrying Japanese troops to New Guinea Japanese designs on Australia ended Midway (June 1942) Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft carriers, 332 planes, and 3500 men.

  21. U.S. strategy to defeat Japan: “Island-hopping” • No need to capture EVERY island…”hop” over some, leaving Japanese troops isolated • 1 island chain after another

  22. U.S. Marines assault an island

  23. Allied Island – Hopping (1942-45)

  24. Europe: Operation Overlord Stalin had pressed FDR and Churchill for over a year to open a 2nd front against the Nazis…a cross-Channel invasion All logistics in place for the invasion of Normandy, France in June, 1944

  25. June 6, 1944: D - Day Combined American, British, Canadian assault Dwight D. Eisenhower: Supreme Allied Commander

  26. Invasion of Europe (con.t) • Allies cont. drive into France…by Aug., 1944: liberation of Paris

  27. The Allies Advance • Into Holland: “Operation Market Garden” • Into Belgium: • Nazis mount major counter-offensive • Battle of the Bulge

  28. Germany’s Defeat Americans advanced into Germany from the west while the Russians closed in on Berlin from the east American and Russian soldiers meet at the Elbe River

  29. Berlin 1945

  30. Hitler’s Last Days In the underground bunker: committed suicide with companion Eva Braun With Berlin in ruins, the Nazis surrendered May, 1945 Victory in Europe at last

  31. Time Magazine cover - 1945

  32. Sec. 4 The Politics of War

  33. The Wartime Conferences • The Allied Leaders met several times during the War to discuss goals and to map strategy :

  34. Yalta Conference: Feb. ‘45 • The most important conference was at Yalta: Churchill, FDR, & Stalin • The Allies were clearly winning the war and the end seemed near. The questions of what would happen once Germany was defeated were of huge importance:

  35. The Polish Question • Stalin maintained that historically, Poland had been used as a corridor to invade Russia… • He therefore believed it was critical that Poland become a “buffer zone” , meaning that a Polish gov’t friendly to Russia was necessary • Translation: “friendly” gov’t = communist gov’t. • The Big 3 agreed that free elections were to be held in Poland…let the people choose their own gov’t.

  36. Yalta Conference (1945) • A 2nd point: USSR would enter war against Japan once Germany was defeated • A 3rd point: Germany would be divided and occupied by the Allies • Other points of agreement: • War-crimes trials • Further discussion on creating a United Nations

  37. Potsdam Conference: July ‘45 • In the Berlin suburb of Potsdam: • Churchill • Truman (FDR had died) • Stalin

  38. Potsdam • Stalin balked at free elections in Poland • Specifics of Germany’s occupation after the war

  39. Berlin • The capital city which lay entirely in the Russian zone of occupation was ALSO divided into 4 zones

  40. Sec. 5 War, the Bomb, and Final Victory

  41. After V-E Day: War in the Pacific Focus turns to Japan US continues “island-hopping” strategy Goal: control of islands close enough to Japan to stage bombing raids

  42. Iwo Jima and Okinawa

  43. Hiroshima & Nagasaki FDR had died in office and new President Harry S. Truman learned of a new weapon. He ordered it to be used

  44. Atomic Bomb http://www.nd.edu/%7Edlindley/govt491/Nagasakiburnvictim.jpg http://www.upa.pdx.edu/IMS/currentprojects/TAHv3/PNGs/nagasaki_bomb.jpg

  45. Hiroshima: Aug. 6th, 1945

  46. No surrender: Japanese military attempted a coup to seize power from the Emperor…wanted to continue to fight Aug. 9th: 2nd bomb on Nagasaki

  47. Victory over Japan:VJ-DAY Aug 15, 1945

  48. Victory Over Japan Day

  49. Formal Japanese Surrender aboard USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay