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Americans At War. Americans Change the War. No one in Europe was sure how the United States would impact the war Germany was so afraid of the power shift they started full unrestricted submarine warfare to try and lessen their impact. Allied Convoys.

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americans change the war
Americans Change the War
  • No one in Europe was sure how the United States would impact the war
    • Germany was so afraid of the power shift they started full unrestricted submarine warfare to try and lessen their impact
allied convoys
Allied Convoys
  • The Allies immediately were impacted by submarine warfare
    • Sinking ships faster than they could be replaced
      • Allies lost critical supplies each time a merchant ship was sunk
  • Allies solved this problem with Convoys
    • Groups of merchant ships sailing together protected by warships
    • Provide mutual safety at sea
    • Helped drop the effects of submarine warfare
    • Stopped the Germans from getting an edge
the trouble on land
The Trouble on Land
  • The Central Powers had the advantage on Land
  • Allies were getting tired of fighting
  • Russia is having to pull back as the country is tearing itself apart with civil wars
    • Czar Nicholas II overthrown, and in 1917 communists lead by Vladimir Lenin staged a revolution and gained Russia
    • Russia ended their war with Germany and fighting ceased on the eastern front.
america helps out
America Helps out
  • In 1918 Germany sent all its troops to the western Front
    • First Americans arrived in 1917 lead by John Pershing, but waves came in 1918
    • Americans brought energized troops to the front and they were able to hold off the German Offensive
    • Americans took more of the Burden in the later part of the war
      • Germany tried again an offensive but the front held strong
the doughboys
The Doughboys
  • American troops had great effect on the battlefield
    • Fought in defense in the 2nd battle of the Marne and offensive on the Battle of Cantigny
    • Americans learned quickly and fought bravely
  • War heroes emerged such as Alvin York
    • Trapped behind enemy lines took out a number of machine gunners and took over the area
    • Earned congressional medal of Honor
americans see more success
Americans see more success
  • Fought bravely, followed orders, and made sacrifices
  • 369th Regiment, an entirely African American unit received the Croix de Guerre, a French award for bravery
  • By wars end 1.3 million American soldiers will serve on the front, more than 50,000 will lose their lived and over 230,000 will be wounded
the war ends
The War Ends
  • The Americans supported the French, British, and Italian soldiers and gave them a military advantage
  • By the fall of 1918 the central powers were on their heels
    • The Germans and Austrio-Hungarians had had enough
      • Men were deserting or refusing to fight
      • On November 11,1918 Germany surrendered to the Allies in a railroad car in Compiegne France
it over
  • Almost 5 million Allies and 8 million Central soldiers died
  • 6.5 million civilians dead
  • Now it was up to the Peace makers to get the world back to Normal.
wilson promotes peace
Wilson Promotes Peace
  • Vladimir Lenin Undermined peace
    • Gave letters to the public that showed that all the allies wanted was land
  • President Wilson takes a stand
    • The war was not about imperialism but about Peace and Freedom
    • In 1917 (before the war ended) Wilson introduced the “Peace without Victory” idea in an address to congress.
wilsons 14 points
Wilsons 14 points
  • Wilson also outlined Americas war aims in the 14 points address.
    • At the heart of the 14 points was the Peace without victory idea
    • Noble ideals should be at the center of the conflict and not greed or vengeance
    • Promoted openness and encouraged independence
    • Freedom on the seas and free trade
    • Argued for a world wide decrease in military
    • Argued National Self-Determination
      • People choose their own form of Government
    • Argued for creation of new nations
    • Asked for a League of Nations to secure mutual guarantees of independence and territorial integrity to great and small countries.
peace conference
Peace Conference
  • In 1919 the Allies held a peace conference in Versailles, the former palace of Louis XIV
  • Wilson believed it was too important to be left to a diplomat so he attended personally
    • No president had done so before
    • Wilson didn’t take the republican foreign policy expert, Henry Cabot Lodge, because he didn’t like him
    • Wilson was a hero when he arrived in France
didn t go as planned
Didn’t go as Planned
  • Wilsons peace didn’t fly with the Allied leaders
    • Blamed Germany for starting the war
    • US didn’t suffer as they did so he didn’t have as much of a voice
    • Insisted Germany pay reparations,
      • Payment for war damages
    • Set out to weaken Germany so that it would never threaten Europe again.
wilsons ideas rejected
Wilsons Ideas Rejected
  • British and French Leaders knew the citizens expected Peace and Victory
    • Wanted to punish Germany
    • France wanted them to pay dearly
    • Demanded the return of Alsace-Loraine and more
  • Didn't see Wilsons grand vision
the league of nations
The League of Nations
  • The Allied leaders started tearing apart Wilsons 14 points
    • Threw out free trade
    • Free seas
    • The decrease in military
  • Wilson fought hard to maintain the points
    • Hung on to the League of Nations
      • Wanted a organization where countries could gather and peaceably resolve their issues.
  • The League of Nations was one of the only things that was added to the treaty from Wilson
problems with peace
Problems with Peace
  • The Various peace treaties created more problems than they solved
    • A new map was created and people couldn’t decide how they would be governed
    • Germans found themselves attached to non German nations
      • Same for Austrians
    • The Ottoman Empire was also divided, and ethnic groups were randomly grouped into new nations
      • Formed Iraq out of 3 random provinces that were barely related
      • No sense of nationalism
america dislike the treaty
America dislike the Treaty
  • Wilson believed that even though treaty was weak, it could work and peace would emerge
    • Wilson didn’t anticipate the trouble he would see when he got home
      • German Americans thought it was too Harsh
      • Irish Americans angry that Ireland wasn’t independent
      • Republicans angry that they didn’t get to help write treaty and Democrats didn’t like the treaty either
    • Many Senators thought that the US should not get involved in world affairs and that joining a league of Nations would hurt the US
      • Didn’t like the league rules
        • Respecting independence of existing members
    • Known as Irreconcilables
americans dislike the treaty
Americans dislike the Treaty
  • Another group of Senators, lead by Lodge, and known as “reservationists” didn’t like the way it was written and demanded changes
    • Feared that league could drag us into war if we didn’t want to go
    • Felt treaty was vague and needed fixing
  • Wilson was angry that Washington wanted more, Wilson pleaded with the people to support the league of Nations
    • Gave 32 addresses in 33 days
    • Suffered a stroke and was lying almost dead in bed when it ratification of the treaty went up for vote
senate rejects the treaty
Senate Rejects the Treaty
  • In November 1919 a treaty was drafted by senators in DC
    • Wilson didn’t like it and told his supporters to vote against it, they did
  • Senate voted the original treaty and it didn’t pass either
    • Another changed treaty was voted upon and it failed to pass the vote as well
  • Nobody was willing to compromise on the changes and the US legally couldn’t join the League of Nations
    • Which contributed to the collapse of the League of Nations.