The War Effort at Home Mobilization
A. Mobilizing the Economy • -U.S. Gov. needed to raise large amount of money for the war effort • 1. Liberty Bonds & Victory Bonds • -$20 billion was raised, Wilson used propaganda to convince Americans to loan the gov. money • 2. Tax increase
B. Federal War Boards • -Designed to conserve and/or mass produce needed resources & supplies for the war • 1. Food Administration • -Herbert Hoover asked farmers to increase production & asked citizens to ration food supplies • a. Wheatless Monday’s, Meatless Tuesday’s, Porkless Thursday’s • b. Victory Gardens • 2. Fuel Administration • a. Heatless Monday’s, Daylight Savings Time
Mobilizing Industry • War Industries Board (WIB) • -main purpose was to coordinate production of war materials, set prices, maximize efficiency
Mobilizing Labor • -Labor shortages due to the draft led to strikes • 1. National War Labor Board (NWLB) • -mediator between unions and management to help industries run smoothly • 2. Role of women • -women took jobs normally held by men such as truck drivers, auto mechanics, and bricklayers • -Army Nursing Corps sent women overseas • a. Women’s support during the war helped pass the 19th Amendment
3. Role of Minorities • a. The Great Migration was the movement of African Americans from the south to the north to help wartime industries, lured by new jobs & the possibility of a better life.
E. Mobilizing the Public • 1. Committee on Public Information (CPI) 1917 • -propaganda campaign designed to win the support of American citizens & sell the war to them, depicted Germans as evil monsters (movies, posters, etc.) • a. Warned people to look out for German spies, anyone who openly criticized the U.S. gov. or spoke against the Allies was treated as a spy • b. German-Americans were treated harshly, anything German either vanished or was changed (sauerkraut=liberty cabbage) • 2. Espionage Act (1917) & Sedition Act (1918) • -outlawed acts of treason against the gov. & any written or spoken criticism of the gov., in times of war freedom of speech is curbed.