chapter eighteen cold war conflicts n.
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  2. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR: SECTION ONE FORMER ALLIES CLASH • Controlling the economy: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union* • Controlling the govt.: the U.S. vs. the Soviet Union* • U.S. angry that Stalin supported Germany for some time • Stalin angry over Allies not opening a Western front and the secret of the atomic bomb


  4. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • United Nations* • U.S. and Soviet Union use this to spread influence to others • Stalin does not keep his promises at Yalta—no free elections or democracies • Big Three meet again at Potsdam—discuss war reparations from Germany* • U.S., during war, is an economic leader—want to grow by extending trade with Eastern Europe (we want democracies)

  5. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • Soviets also emerged as an economic and military powerhouse from the war • Yet, they suffered heavy casualties from the war • To prevent further invasions from the West, they felt they had claim to Eastern Europe • Satellite nations* • Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland


  7. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • Containment* • Europe is, now, divided by the iron curtain* pg. 605 in textbook COLD WAR IN EUROPE • Cold War* • Turkey and Greece cannot be supported financially by Britain • Truman and U.S. fear Soviet influence—create Truman Doctrine*

  8. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • Most of Western Europe dealing with problems of destruction by the war, refugees wandering, and a terrible winter ruining crops • Marshall Plan* SUPERPOWERS STRUGGLE OVER GERMANY • End of WWII, Germany divided into four zones: U.S., France, Great Britain, and Soviet Union • City of Berlin also divided with West vs. East

  9. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • G.B., Fr., and U.S. unify W. Germany; on their way to unify Berlin • Stalin uses this as an opportunity to close all highways and railroads leading into city • Berlin Airlift* • Soviets give up just after a year


  11. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR • As a result of the Soviet blockade, Western Europe begins to fear the decisions of the Soviets • United States, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Greece, Turkey, West Germany, and Portugal form NATO*

  12. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP: SECTION TWO CHINA BECOMES A COMMUNIST COUNTRY • Chiang Kai-shek* • Ruler of Southern and Eastern China; had a corrupt govt. • Collected a grain tax during a famine • Was a 10,000 percent increase; people protestedand his secret police opened fire on them

  13. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP • Mao Zedong* • Leader of Northern China • Win peasant support with helping them to read, fight against famine, and promising land reform • Communist Red Army grows

  14. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP • With the defeat of Japan at the end of WWII, civil war breaks out between the two groups • 44-47 U.S. fails to negotiate peace • Truman does not send troops to the Nationalists gives them two billion in supplies and equipment • Not enough to help for two reasons* • Kai-Shek flees to Taiwan* and rest of China becomes Communist

  15. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP • Conservative Democrats and Republicans attack Truman for this loss • Believed we put more effort into Europe rather than Asia THE KOREAN WAR • 38th Parallel* • South: Republic of Korea, capital is Seoul; Syngman Rhee is leader • North: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; capital is Pyongyang; Kim Il Sung is leader

  16. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP • Korean War* • United Nations joins with S. Korea • Truman orders troops stationed in Japan to support the South; stations a fleet between Taiwan and China

  17. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP THE UNITED STATES FIGHTS IN KOREA • N. Korea captures Seoul; it drives S. Korean troops and U.N. into Pusan • General Douglas MacArthur launches a counterattack with heavy artillery, fresh troops, and tanks at Inchon • Other troops move into Pusan—traps N. Korean forces between two groups • Reach as far as the Yalu River—China on the other side

  18. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP • Now, China joins with N. Korea for two reasons* • Drive the U.N. and MacArthur into S. Korea; opposing forces take Seoul • For two years, neither side makes an advance • MacArthur calls for nuclear weapons against China; Truman refuses*

  19. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP • MacArthur still pushes full war against China • He speaks and writes privately to newspapers and magazines about his views; criticizes Truman • Truman fires MacArthur* • Soviet Union suggests a cease-fire in 51 • Takes two years to settle; 38th Parallel does not move and war ends in stalemate • End results for Americans*

  20. THE COLD WAR AT HOME: SECTION THREE Anti-Communist Propaganda FEAR OF COMMUNIST INFLUENCE • Americans fear the takeover of Eastern European countries and China; plus, there was a communist party in the U.S. • Federal Employee Loyalty Program* • 3.2 million investigated; 212 dismissed; 2,900 resigned

  21. THE COLD WAR AT HOME • House of Un-American Activities Committee* • Believed films were trying to sneak in Communist propaganda • 43 “friendly” witnesses support the presence of communism • Hollywood Ten* • Blacklist*

  22. THE COLD WAR AT HOME SPY CASES STUN THE NATION • Alger Hiss* • Chambers produces microfilm of govt. docs. typed by Hiss • Hiss is convicted of perjury and sentenced to jail

  23. THE COLD WAR AT HOME • Sept. 3, 1949Soviets test atomic bomb • Was not supposed to happen until three to five years later • U.S. believed secrets have been leaked • Klaus Fuchs admitted to giving away info. • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg*

  24. THE COLD WAR AT HOME MCCARTHY LAUNCHES HIS WITCH-HUNT • Senator Joseph McCarthy* • McCarthyism* • Claimed he had varying numbers of names of people in the Senate; accuses Democrats of “20 years of treason”

  25. THE COLD WAR AT HOME • Republicans did not speak out against him; they thought this would help them win the next pres. election • McCarthy made accusations against U.S. Army; became a nationally televised court proceeding • He loses support from people due to bullying witnesses; Senate criticizes him for improper conduct • Dies three years later from alchoholism

  26. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE: SECTION FOUR Living on the Edge BRINKSMANSHIP RULES U.S. POLICY • Soviet Union and the United States participate in an arms race • H-bomb* • Soviets build it first in 53 • Dwight Eisenhower* • John Foster Dulles and brinksmanship*

  27. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE THE COLD WAR SPREADS AROUND THE WORLD • Eisenhower forms the Central Intelligence Agency due to arms race* • Prime minister of Iran takes over oil fields in his country that belong to Britain • Britain stops buying Iranian oil; causes Iranian economy to falter • Feared the prime minister might ask Soviets for help

  28. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE • Gave several million dollars to people against the prime minister • Wanted pro-American Shah of Iran to return to power; he came back and gave oil fields to Western companies • CIA also looked at Guatemala--mad because their govt. gave away 200,000 acres of American land to peasants • Our response*

  29. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE • West Germany now allowed to rearm and join NATO, out of fear, the Soviet Union forms the Warsaw Pact* pg. 624 • 1955 Britain and U.S. agree to finance construction of a dam on the Nile River • Gamal Abdel-Nassar, Egypt’s head of govt. plays the U.S. and Soviets against each other* • U.S. finds out and withdraws a loan given to Egypt

  30. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE • Egypt takes over British and French controlled end of Suez Canal; refused to allow ships bound for Israel pass through • Three countries send out troops to gain Mediterranean end; UN stops fighting and forces them to withdraw • Egypt keeps control of the canal • During this time, Soviets support Egypt, so the Eisenhower Doctrine is formed*

  31. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE THE COLD WAR TAKES TO THE SKIES • Stalin dies in 53; replaced by Nikita Khruschev* • They launch Sputnik—causes U.S. to catch up • CIA begins making secret flights over the Soviet Union

  32. TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE • Americans are afraid of these flights for two reasons* • Eisenhower was afraid but was persuaded to do one more flight • Francis Gary Powers’ plane is shot down • Eisenhower’s reaction*