unit i the cold war period 1945 1965 n.
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Recent American History

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  1. Unit I: The Cold War Period (1945—1965) Recent American History

  2. Origins of the Cold War

  3. What should I be able to do? • Define the Cold War • Explain the reasons behind why the U.S. and the USSR were fighting during the years of 1945-1991 and explain how each country fought the war • Contrast communism and capitalism and democracy vs. totalitarianism

  4. What Was the Cold War? • Cold: Rifle range is cold when no rounds are being sent down range, hot when rounds are being fired • War: Conflict between two nations, groups or people. Oftentimes associated with physical fighting • Cold War: Time of conflict ranging from 1945 to 1991 between the United States and the Soviet Union. It was a verbal, and psychological war between the two nations

  5. Why Were the U.S. and the USSR Fighting?

  6. If it Truly was a Cold War, Then How Did Each Nation Fight? • Both nations competed in the Arms Race andSpace Race where each nation tried to gain more weapons and greater technology • Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD): “He who fires first, dies second”

  7. Who Were the Countries Leaders?

  8. Causes of the Cold War

  9. Cause 1: Ideological Differences Incompatibility of Economic and Political Systems

  10. Ideological Differences • Ideology: the ideas reflecting the social needs and desires of an individual, group, class or culture • Capitalism vs. Communism • Democracy vs. Totalitarianism

  11. Capitalism • Accumulation of the means of production as property into a few hands. • Property = Capital • Property Owners = Capitalists • Social System based on INDIVIDUAL Rights.

  12. Communism • A Stateless, property-less, and classless society. • All property is owned by the community as a whole, and all people enjoy equal social and economic status. • From Each according to his ability, to each according to his need. • (Not how it has EVER played out)

  13. Capitalism v. Communism • Progress results when individuals follow their own self interest. • Businesses (make money) • Goods that are better and cheaper. • Consumers (save money) • purchase the best goods at the lowest prices. • Government should not interfere in the economy. • Movements in history are the result of economic struggles. • ‘haves’ v. ‘have nots’ • Workers are exploited by employers. • Labor of workers creates profit for employers. • Capitalism will destroy itself and a classless society will develop

  14. Capitalism v. Communism • Adam Smith • The Wealth of Nations • 1776 • Karl Marx • The Communist Manifesto • 1848 • Major revolutions • Russia/USSR: 1917-1991 • China: 1949 – Present • N. Korea: 1948 – Present • Cuba: 1959 – Present • Vietnam: 1953/73 to Present

  15. Cold War Ideology Rock-Paper-Scissors • Directions/Rules • Find a partner • Play 3 rounds of rock-paper-scissors (1 round=best out of three shoots) • At the end each round, the loser must give the winner two pieces of their candy • Odds and Ends • In game, candy=money and winning=hard work (therefore, the harder your work the more money you receive and vise versa)

  16. Cold War Ideology Rock-Paper-Scissors • What economic ideology was enacted while playing the game? Capitalism or communism? • What problems may arise from a capitalistic economy? Now…winners equal out the candy between you and your partner (each person should have three pieces) • Which economic ideology does this represent? • What problems may arise from a capitalistic economy? • Why won’t a capitalistic and communistic economy exist together?

  17. Ticket-out • What are the differences between capitalism and communism?

  18. Cause 2: Broken Promises and Varying Aims

  19. Broken Promises • Yalta Conference • Stalin promised to hold “free and unfettered” elections in Eastern Europe • He prevented elections in 1945

  20. Varying Aims • Potsdam Conference • Goals included the establishment of the post-war order, ironing peace treaty issues, and countering the effects of the war • Evident three countries had varying aims in Europe

  21. Varying Aims in Europe

  22. United States Containment

  23. What Should I be able to do? • Summarize the steps the United States took in containing Soviet influence as tensions increased • Describe how the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan further defined and deepened the Cold War in Europe • Explain how conflicts over Germany increased fear of Soviet aggression

  24. Iron Curtain • Iron Curtain • Analogy for divide between the non-communist West and communist East • “An iron curtain has descended across…Europe”—Churchill • Stalin claimed speech was a “call to war”

  25. What does it mean to contain?

  26. U.S. Containment Efforts • Truman Doctrine • A U.S. policy of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by communism • Outlined policy of containment • Directed 1st towards Turkey and Greece

  27. U.S. Containment Efforts • Marshall Plan • Program developed by Secretary of State George Marshall • Supplied economic aid to war torn Europe • Ulterior motive?

  28. Causes and Effects of United States Containment Efforts

  29. In what ways does communism appeal to the poor? In this case, those in war ravaged Europe?

  30. Struggles Over Germany

  31. Crisis in Berlin (1948)

  32. Berlin Divided

  33. Notable Military Alliances • N.A.T.O • Military alliance formed by U.S., Canada, Iceland and 9 European nations • Collective Security—attackone, attack all • First military alliance during peacetime • Warsaw Pact • Military alliance between communist countries in Eastern Europe • Communist response to N.A.T.O

  34. The Cold War Turns Hot

  35. Chinese Civil War

  36. Brief History • Battle between Communist and Nationalists • Communist - Mao Zedong (Tse Dong) • Nationalist - Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek) • Fighting began in 1927 to 1936 • Resumed fighting in 1946 to 1950 • Possible causes for the stop in fighting?

  37. History of Conflict • Japan invade China in 1937. • Civilian death in the millions. • Very cruel and xenophobic. • Stopped initial fighting between KMT and Communist forces. • The enemy of my enemy is my friend. • US support of China against Japan. • US impressed with Chiang (Jeing) and KMT.

  38. Civil War in China Based on the chart above, hypothesize which group won the civil war in China?

  39. Chiang Kai-shek *Born upper class *Educated in Military School *Lead the Koumintang KMT against War Lords, communists, and Japanese

  40. Mao Zedong *Born to wealthy family. *Received formal education and served in military. *Joined KMT, but split off in early 1920’s. *Founded Communist party in China.

  41. Communist Forces 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) Nationalist Forces 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949)