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CHAPTER 10. Wild Species and Biodiversity. An introduction to wildlife and biodiversity. ________ are seabirds that live in cold coastal waters In Maine, hunting and predatory gulls almost wiped them out, despite protective __________

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    1. CHAPTER 10 Wild Species and Biodiversity

    2. An introduction to wildlife and biodiversity ________ are seabirds that live in cold coastal waters In Maine, hunting and predatory gulls almost wiped them out, despite protective __________ Project Puffin brought birds from Newfoundland in the 1970s Chicks were installed on Eastern Egg Rock ______ Gulls were ______________ Painted ______________ and tapes of puffin calls attracted birds The island now has 101 pairs of puffins Terns, petrels, and albatrosses have also been __________________

    3. The value of wild species and biodiversity Ecosystem capital: all goods and ____________ provided to humans by natural systems In 2008, capital loss from the world’s financial crisis = $1–______ trillion Capital loss from ecosystem degradation = $2–____ trillion The basis of ecosystem capital = ______________ The basis of ecosystems = _____________ species To maintain ecosystem sustainability, you must save ecosystem integrity, _________________, processes, biodiversity

    4. Attitudes toward wildlife stem from values Even if they ____________ that wildlife should be protected, not everyone agrees on ___________ of protection for wildlife, Some want wildlife protected for ______________ Others feel hunting should be ________________ Many think loss of biodiversity is a ___________ People in developing countries use wildlife for food or ______________________ How can different values be ________________ to sustainably mange wildlife?

    5. Biological wealth Two million species have been examined, named, classified Out of 5–30 million species Biota: natural species of ______________ things Biological wealth: biota plus their ecosystems that sustains human ______ and economic activity Makes up most ecosystem _________ that sustains humans Represents a major part of a country’s total _______ Biodiversity: richness of living species

    6. Humans have always used wild species 12,000 years ago, humans started _____________ forests, savannas, and plains to fields and pastures As human populations grew and culture developed Species were _________________ to extinction Others disappeared as their _______________ were destroyed Between 1642 and 2001, _______ North American species and subspecies went _________________ We have been drawing down our biological wealth with unknown _______________________

    7. We still depend on biological wealth Many Americans don’t see the ___________________ between everyday life and nature In developing countries People draw ____________ and income from nature Environmental income sustains them and gives them __________________ People also draw down their ______________ wealth The way we regard and ___________ nature is a root cause of this problem

    8. Two kinds of value In the 19th century, hunters ______________________ wildlife Bison, passenger pigeons, egrets, and other shorebirds ________________ naturalists called for ending the slaughter The U.S. public became ____________________ People saw species as worth _________________ Why shouldn’t we hunt species to extinction? Wild species have some _________ that makes it essential to preserve them By identifying this value we can assess our moral duties to species

    9. The extinct passenger pigeon

    10. The value of wildlife Instrumental value: a species’ or organism’s existence or use _____________ some other entity Food, shelter, source of ________________ Usually _____________: beneficiaries are humans We preserve species to __________ the benefits they provide Intrinsic value: something has value for its ______ __________ It does not have to be useful to us Do animals have rights? Or are they simply _______? Many people believe only ___________ have intrinsic value There is no reason to preserve “insignificant” species

    11. Species have value as sources for materials Most food comes from _________________ Wild populations have _____________ for competitiveness, resistance to parasites, tolerance to adverse conditions Agricultural populations have ______ these traits A cultivar (cultivated variety): a highly selected _______________ of the original species Has minimal _______________ variation Produces outstanding ______________ in specific conditions Can not _______________ to other conditions

    12. Wild genes Plant breeders comb ________ populations of related species for desired traits To maintain _____________ in cultivars To ______________ them to different conditions Traits from the natural biota are _____________ into cultivars by crossbreeding or biotechnology Genes can come only from natural biota If wild populations are lost, options for improved food plants are greatly _________________

    13. New food plants Potential for developing new cultivars is lost if wild populations are ___________________ Out of the ____________ of thousands of plants species Humans use only ____________ species ___ species (wheat, maize, rice) provide 50% of global food demands Modern plants can not produce under many environmental ___________________ 30,000 wild plant species with edible parts could be ________________ For example, every part of the winged bean is edible

    14. The winged bean

    15. Wood and other raw materials Animal husbandry, forestry, and aquaculture also select species from ______________ Three billion people use _________ for heating and cooking ______________ for wood is increasing Scientists are predicting a “____________ _____________” or “fuelwood crisis” Rubber, ______, nuts, fruits, spices, and gums also come from forests All are ________________ for humans

    16. Banking genes Genetic bank: living things are a bank of the _____ ____________ of all living species Wild ______________ of cultivated crops are being preserved England’s Millennium Seed Bank has 1 billion ______ Norway’s Svalbard Global Seed Vault holds seeds as a _____________ for other seed banks ____________ act as genetic banks for animals The United Kingdom’s ________ Ark Project collects cells and ______ from species likely to go extinct Genetic diversity is preserved while we try to ________ extinction

    17. Species have value as sources for medicine Madagascar’s rosy __________ has revolutionized treatment of childhood leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (99% chance of remission) The Chinese star anise’s fruit is used in _________ Paclitaxel from the Pacific yew tree treats ovarian, breast, and small-cell _________________ Ethnobotany: studies relationships between _________ and people 3,000 plants have _______________ properties The search for beneficial drugs has helped create _____________ Bioprospecting: studies _____________________ people’s use of plants

    18. The rosy periwinkle

    19. Species have recreational, aesthetic, and scientific value Species provide recreational and _________________interests Hunting, sportfishing, hiking, ____________, bird-watching In 2001, 202 million Americans were involved in some form of outdoor __________________ _____________ reflect interest in and concern for the environment Contact with the ___________ sensitizes people Broad public ___________ for wildlife and habitat stems from aesthetic and recreational enjoyment

    20. Recreational, aesthetic, and scientific uses

    21. Values support commercial interests Recreational and aesthetic values support ________________ interests In 2006, _______ million U.S. adults participated in wildlife-centered recreation (e.g., bird-watching, hunting) Generated 2.6 million _______ and $108 million Ecotourism: tourists ________ a place to observe wild species or unique ecological sites It is the largest foreign exchange-generating ______________ for many developing countries Environmental ________________ affects commercial interests

    22. Scientific value We learn basic ____________ of nature The way ecosystems and the world ________ Biota provides the nature we study But most scientific work is done to ___________ medicines, agricultural benefits, and other outcomes

    23. A cautionary note Using wild species and biodiversity causes problems _______ _________from the rosy periwinkle’s success went back to Madagascar, a very poor country Large companies have ___________ ancient herbal remedies But indigenous people may not _____________ Ecotourism may bring money to poor countries It can increase _________, harm wildlife, or changes cultures Whale-watching boats disrupt ___________ feeding Tourist boats frighten flamingoes and reduce their ______________ But ecotourism can be _____________ if done right.

    24. The loss of instrumental value Biodiversity loss has tremendous ____________ __________ on the world The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity’s (TEEB) 2008 ________ detailed the economic and life-quality effects of biodiversity loss Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services = _______ billion/yr Highest for the world’s _____________ Continued loss could cut in half the income of the _____________ billion people Usually, those who gain from the rapid use of ecosystems (the rich) are not the one’s ____________ from the loss (the poor)

    25. Species have value for their own sake The usefulness (________________ value) of species is obvious But it’s ____ ____________to protect many species Some species have no obvious value Another strategy: emphasize the ____________ value of species Extinction is an ____________________ loss of something valuable The existence of a species means it has a _______ to exist Living things have ends and interests of their ________ “Destroying species is like tearing pages out of an unread book” Humans have a _________________ to the natural world

    26. Religious support for intrinsic value Jewish and ______________ traditions show God’s concern for wild species God declared his creation was good and blessed it All wild things have intrinsic value and deserve care The Islamic _______ (Koran) says the environment is Allah’s creation and should be protected Native American _______________ have a strong environmental ethic ____________ philosophy has strong grassroots environmentalism Religions represent a potentially powerful force for preserving ____________________

    27. The land ethic Aldo ____________ 1949 essay “The Land Ethic” described an ethic about preservation of ecosystems Leopold understood the importance of ______ and predators in maintaining ecosystem health He advocated for protection of ________________ (wild places) He also advocated better _______ of human-dominated land In his book A Sand County Almanac, Leopold said, “A thing is _______ when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.”

    28. Biodiversity and its decline Biodiversity includes genetic diversity in species as well as the diversity of species, communities, and ecosystems Two measures calculate biodiversity The number of species How “even” the species are A habitat has low biodiversity if it is dominated by one species with few members of other species Diversity is higher if dominance of any one species is low

    29. How many species? Most people are _________ of the great diversity of species Groups that are rich in species: flowering plants and ________________ Conspicuous or commercially important groups are more explored and _______________ Birds, ______________, fish, trees Fully exploring biodiversity would require a major _____________ Estimates continue to rise as rain forests are ______________

    30. The decline of biodiversity Biodiversity is ______________ in the United States and around the world Endemic species: are found only in ____ habitat They are especially at ________ Some areas are very _____________ to species loss These are the _______ of special conservation efforts North America, although well-studied, is still not well-known At least 500 species (100 vertebrates) have gone _______________ One-third of species are vulnerable, _____________, or extinct

    31. North America Species in_______________ habitats are at greatest risk Mussels, crayfish, fishes, amphibians The American southeast has the greatest diversity of any freshwater ___________ (mussels, clams) group Species ________________ are more important than a species’ existence Populations contribute to biological ___________ Declines of well-studied species populations are occurring Fish, amphibians, ___________________ More than _________ of North American birds are declining

    32. The state of U.S. species

    33. Global outlook The global loss of biodiversity is _____________ The background (past) extinction rate is less than one extinction every _______ years for mammals __________ for the five great extinction events Current extinction rate = 100–1,000 times _______ than past rates For mammals and birds = 20–25 species per 100 years Rates for all groups = 850 species over _________ years 23% of mammal species and ______ of bird species are threatened

    34. Species extinction rates

    35. Most threatened species are in the tropics The tropics have almost unimaginable __________ ____ species of ants occur on one ______ in Peru Equal to _____ ant fauna of the British Isles _________ species of trees on a 1-ha (2.5-acre) plot 1,000 species of beetles on one tree species in Panama Tropical forests are also experiencing the highest rate of ________________________ The species inventory is so ________________ it’s almost impossible to assess extinction rates

    36. Reasons for the decline Past extinctions were caused by __________ _____________, plate tectonics and asteroid impacts Current threats to biodiversity are described by HIPPO ___abitat destruction ___nvasive species ___ollution ___opulation ___verexploitation

    37. Biodiversity loss in the developing world Future losses in biodiversity will be greatest in the __________________ world Biodiversity is greatest So is human population _____________ Asia and Africa have lost two-thirds of their original natural _________________ People’s desire for a better _______ ___________________ poverty Global market for ________________ and other resources

    38. Habitat change: conversion The __________ source of biodiversity _____ (36%) Conversion, fragmentation, simplification, intrusion Species are _____________ to specific habitats When the habitat changes, the species _______with it Conversion of natural areas to farms, housing, ________ , marinas, industrial centers Forest cover has been reduced by _________ North American songbird declines are due to loss of winter habitat and ________________ of summer habitat Croplands that replace grasslands support ____ ________________

    39. The border of Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    40. Habitat change: fragmentation Natural landscapes have large patches of habitat _____________ to other similar patches Human-dominated landscapes consist of a mosaic of different land ____________ The patches contrast with neighboring patches ____________ of habitat support small numbers and populations of species Species become vulnerable to ____________ Species that require large areas, ______ _______, or have unstable populations are also vulnerable

    41. Fragmentation

    42. Fragmentation: edge Reducing habitat size increases ___________ Exposing species to _________ and nest parasites Edge is beneficial to some species but ____ to others Kirtland’s warbler, an endangered species, depends on _________ ____________in Michigan Forests have been fragmented, creating edge Brown-headed cowbirds are nest parasites that lay their eggs in the warbler’s _________ Edge also favors nest predators (crows, _________, jays)

    43. Habitat change: simplification and intrusion Simplification: humans ____________ habitats Removing logs and trees changes forest ______________________ Streams are _______________ (straightened), reducing fish and invertebrate species Intrusion: human structures Millions of migrating birds crash into telecommunication _______________ ______ _________tower lights affect birds migrating at night Up to a billion birds die each year by crashing into _________________

    44. Invasive species An _________ (alien) species: one that is introduced into an area from somewhere else Most _______ survive or don’t become pests Invasive species: ___________, spreads, and can eliminate native species by predation or competition Accidental introductions: the brown tree ________ Entered __________ on cargo ships Within 50 years, it eliminated 9 of 12 bird species It has no natural _______________ Wildlife officials are trying to _____________ its spread

    45. The brown tree snake

    46. May I introduce… Species have been ________________ introduced Kudzu: to _________ eroded or degraded lands Saltcedar in the American southwest to control _____________ Horticultural desirables: the Brazilian ________ in Florida has fundamentally changed the Everglades (pg. 279) Aquaculture: the farming of shellfish, seaweed, and fish Introducing parasites, seaweeds, invertebrates, _____________ Species ___________ and enter nearby waterways

    47. The Brazilian pepper bush

    48. Over time Humans have transplanted species throughout _____________ European _____________ brought weeds and plants to America Field, _________, and roadside plants are exotics Animals have been introduced to North America House mouse, Norway rat, wild boar, starling, _____ The house _____ is one of the most destructive exotics Kills 1 billion small _____________ and hundreds of millions of birds Species transplanted from North America cause problems Gray squirrels outcompete ____squirrels in Europe

    49. The gray squirrel