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The Cold War 1945- 1991

The Cold War 1945- 1991

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The Cold War 1945- 1991

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  1. The Cold War1945- 1991 Ch. 30 All

  2. The Cold War Unfolds Section 1

  3. The Two Sides • United States vs Soviet Union post WWII • Only two superpowers that remained • US led NATO/ SU led Warsaw Pact • “Iron Curtain” divided democratic West from communist East • Soviet Union builds the Berlin Wall

  4. The Wall that divides Berlin • Democratic West and communist east • Low paid East Germans, unhappy with communism, fled to West Berlin • Soviet Union built the Berlin Wall to prevent people moving west • Built in 1961: showed workers that already didn’t like communism, now they were forcibly kept from fleeing

  5. Eastern Europe Resists • East Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia revolted against Soviet domination • Hungary even tried to pull of out Warsaw pact • Each region attempted to overthrow Soviets in their area, but were unsuccessful

  6. Nuclear Weapons Threaten the World • One of the most terrifying aspects of the Cold War was the arms race post WWII • US was the only nuclear power at first • By 1949 Soviet Union had also developed nuclear weapons • Both sides began to race to match the other’s new weapons • Result: “balance of terror”- discouraged nuclear war

  7. Limiting Nuclear Weapons • To reduce the threat both sides met at disarmament talks • Mutual distrust but did reach an agreement • 1969: SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks • Limited number of arms on each side • Limited ABMs anti-ballistic missiles • The agreements led to a time of détente during the 1970s • Ended in 1979 when SU invaded Afghanistan • 1960s: Brit, FR, & China developed nuclear weapons • 1968: These nations signed Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

  8. Cold War goes Global • Began in Central Europe- spread worldwide • US sees relationship of Soviet supported China and Korea • Developed policies to respond to challenges anywhere in the world • NATO was only one of many of several regional alliances

  9. Treaties • South-East Treaty Organization • SEATO: US, Brit, FR, Australia, Pakistan, Thailand, New Zealand, and Philippines • Central Treaty Organization • CENTO: Brit, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan • Also formed individual alliances with such as • Japan and South Korea • Established army, navy, and air force bases around the world • Soviets made alliances with governments in Africa, Asia and China- Soviet Bloc

  10. Cold War gets Hot • Local conflicts around the world played into cold war • US and Allies support one side/ Soviet bloc supported the other • Political shifts added to Cold War tensions • Korea and Vietnam were torn by conflict • More commonly, superpowers provided weapons, training, or other aid

  11. Cuba Goes Communist • 1950s: Fidel Castro organized an armed rebellion against the dictator of Cuba • By 1959: Castro controlled Cuba and wanted to transform the country (Cuban Revolution) • Castro sought support from Soviet Union • US attempted to bring down the regime • 1961: John F. Kennedy supported Bay of Pigs invasion • US then imposed a trade embargo on Cuba (still today) • 1962: Soviet Union sent missiles to Cuba • Kennedy imposed Naval Blockade and demanded missiles be removed • Premier Nikita Khrsuschev agreed to remove the missiles

  12. Soviet Union in the Cold War • Victory in WWII did not bring many rewards for Soviet people • Command Economy • Stalin continued plans for more purges before his death in 1953 • Nikita Khruschev became new Soviet leader • Denounced Stalin’s abuse of power- closed prison camps and eased censorship • Called for a “peaceful coexistence” with the West • Some citizens were still punished for speaking out against the government

  13. Joseph Stalin (1941-1953) Nikita Khrushchev (1953-1964)

  14. United States in the Cold War • Gave citizens freedom to make economic and political choices. • Valued freedom and prosperity • Market Economy • Prices are based on supply and demand • Policy towards communism: Containment • including any government facing invasion or internal rebellion by communists • Nuclear threat caused people to build fallout shelters • Reached its peak in 1962 with Cuban Missile Crisis • 1950-1970s schools practiced air-raid drills

  15. Red Scare in the US • Cold war fears leads to a “red scare” in the US • Americans feared communist inside the US might undermine the US government • 1950 Senator Joseph McCarthy led a hunt fro suspected American Communist • Became known for unproven charges, accusing innocent people and that fear created McCathyism • Even accused US Army • HUAC House Un-American Activist Committee sought to expose communist sympathizers, even in Hollywood’s movie industry

  16. Communism Spreads in East Asia Section 3

  17. China’s Communist Revolution • By end of WWII, Chinese Communist had gained much of northern China • After Japan’s defeat, Communists led by Mao Zedong fought a civil war against Nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi • With Mao’s victory he set up People’s Republic of China • Defeated nationalists fled to Taiwan • China was finally under Communist control

  18. How the Communists Won • Reasons Mao’s Communists triumphed • Mao won support of China’s huge peasant population • Communists redistributed land to poor peasants and ended oppression by landlords • Many Chinese resented Jiang’s government and its reliance on Western “imperialist” powers • Support of the Communist helped Nationalists capture rail lines and Nationalist-held cities • After Communists won China over Nationalists, they conquered Tibet (1950) • 1959: Dalai Lama was forced to flee the country

  19. Changing Chinese Society • Mao built a Communist one-party totalitarian state • Became People’s Republic of China (PRC) • Communist ideology guided the government’s efforts to reshape the economy and society • Discouraged practice of Buddhism, Confucianism, and other traditional beliefs • Government seized property of landlords & urban business owners • Opponents of Communism became “counterrevolutionaries” – then beaten, sent to labor camps, or killed

  20. Great Leap Forward 1958-1960 • Chinese built dams and factories with Soviet help • First Mao distributed land, then called for collectivization in an attempt to increase productivity • Created communes- agricultural and industrial • Proved to be a dismal failure • Turned out low-quality, useless goods • Cut out food output by removing incentives for individual farmers and families • Bad weather led to a famine (1959-1961) • 55 million Chinese are predicted to have starved to death

  21. Cultural Revolution Disrupts Life • Slowly recovered from Great Leap Forward- reduced size of communes & a more practical approach to the economy • 1966: Mao launched Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution • Goal: Purge China of “bourgeois” tendencies • Urged young Chinese to experience revolution first generation • Teens formed Red Guards- attacked those considered bourgeois • Mao had the Army restore order

  22. China- Cold War’s “Wild Card” • Communist victory: more for Soviets and less for US • Number of people under Communism tripled • PRCand SU were uneasy allies in 1950s • Distrust led to tensions • By 1960: border clashes and ideology disputes led Soviets to withdraw all aid and advisors from China

  23. Washington Plays the China Card • US supported Jiang Jieshi and Nationalists as rightful representative China • Washington refused diplomatic recognition of People’s Republic of China • As Cold War dragged on, US took a second look at PRC • Strategic advantages befriending Communist China • An attempt to isolate SU between NATO in West and hostile China in East • 1971: PRC replaced Taiwanin UN • 1979: US set up formal diplomatic relations with China

  24. War comes to Korea • Japan conquered the independent Korea in early 20th century • After Japan’s defeat in WWII- SU and US decided to divide Korea temporarily along 38th parallel • North Korea ruler Kim Il Sung became Communist ally • US supported dictator but non-communist Syngman Rhee in South Korea • June 1950: Kim Il Sung attacked the south as part of his “heroic struggle” to reunite Korea • US organized a UN force to help South Korea

  25. War in Korea con’t • Northern forces were not stopped until Pusan Perimeter • Arrival of UN troops in Sept. 1950- US led troops captured Korea’s north/south rail lines and cut off north’s troops from supplies/ammunition • By November UN forces had advanced north to Yalu river- alarmed Chinese • Late Nov. Mao sent hundreds of thousands of troops to help the north- forced UN back south of 38th • Turned into a stalemate (Demilitarized Zone) – 1953: signed an armistice

  26. Two Koreas • North and South developed separately after armistice • North: Communist command economy (SU supported) • Command economy increased output for a time • Late 1960s that growth slowed • Kim’s self-reliance kept North isolated and poor • South: Capitalist market economy (US supported) • Slowly rebuilt its economy after the war • Despite dictatorial rule the prosperous middle class led to fierce student protests- pushed gov. to hold elections (1987) • Many North and South Koreans wanted to be reunited

  27. Syngman Rhee Non-Communist South Korea Kim Il Sung Communist North Korea

  28. War in Southeast Asia Section 4

  29. Indochina After WWII • Liberation struggle tore apart region known as French Indochina • 1946-1954: war against the French • 1955-1975 Cold War conflict, involved US • French conquered Indochina during 1800s- then overran by Japanese during WWII, but faced resistance • Especially in Vietnam by guerrillas- determined to be free of all foreign rule • Influenced strongly by communist opposition to Euro powers

  30. Ho Chi Minh Fights the French • After Japanese were defeated, French tried to re-establish their authority in Indochina (1946) • Ho Chi Minh led guerrilla forces • Nationalists and Communist who had fought Japanese • Then fought French in 1st Indochina War • 1954: Dienbienphu- unexpected Vietnamese victory convinced French to leave Vietnam • Cambodia & Laos gained their independence about the same time

  31. Vietnam is Divided • 1954: Struggle for Vietnam became part of Cold War • At international conference Western and Communists agreed to temporarily divide Vietnam • North: Controlled by Communist Ho Chi Minh, supported by Soviet Union • South: Led by Ngo Dinh Diem supported by United States • The agreement called for elections to reunite the two Vietnams • Out of fear of communist victory elections were never held

  32. Ngo Dinh Diem US Supported S Vietnam leader Ho Chi Minh Communist North Vietnam leader

  33. Some south Vietnamese wanted Ho Chi Minh (national hero) over US backed (foreign power) • Minh’s communist rule in North forced many Catholic and pro-French Vietnamese to the south • 1960s Diem faced northern supported guerrillas who opposed foreign domination • Many were southern Vietnamese

  34. America Enters Vietnam War • US foreign policy planners saw the situation in Vietnam as part of the global Cold War • Developed the Domino Theory • US leaders wanted to prevent the spread of Communism • Ho Chi Minh remained determined to unite Vietnam under communist rule • He continued to aid the National Liberation Front or Viet Cong • Initially US only sent supplies and advisors to South • Later sent thousands of troops

  35. Vietnam War • Aug. 1, 1964: South Vietnamese conducted raids on North Vietnamese islands in Gulf of Tonkin • Aug. 2: North attacked a nearby US Navy destroyer Maddox • President Johnson reported to Congress the attacks without mentioning the South attacked first • Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Aug. 7, 1964 • Allowed President to take all necessary measures to prevent further aggression in SE Asia • US began bombing targets in North Vietnam

  36. Vietnam War Con’t • While US sent troops to aid South, SU and China sent aid to North • Many young men felt it their patriotic duty to fight • Others sought refuge in other countries • Americans were at a disadvantage fighting local guerrillas in a foreign land • Guerrillas received aid from the North through trails in neighboring Cambodia and Laos • US crossed borders to stop the trade network, bringing them into the war