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Cell Organelles. Eukaryotic Cells. Cell Parts. Cells – the basic unit of life Organelles - small structures inside a cell with specific functions. Analogy – City of Rocklin. A) Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane . Cell membrane.

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cell organelles

Cell Organelles

Eukaryotic Cells

cell parts
Cell Parts
  • Cells – the basic unit of life
  • Organelles - small structures inside a cell with specific functions.

Analogy – City of Rocklin


A) Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane

Cell membrane

  • Function: Regulates materials entering and exiting the cell.
  • Structure: Two layers of phospholipids, proteins

Analogy – Rocklin city limits

b cytoplasm
B) Cytoplasm


  • Function: All cell contents that lie between the cell membrane and the nucleus. (organelles + cytosol)

a. Cytosol = liquid portion/non-organelles.

  • Structure: made up of fluid and organelles except for nucleus

Analogy – All air, water, life that are in Rocklin, except City Hall

c nucleus
C) Nucleus


  • Function: “Control Center.” Regulates DNA & RNA actions.
  • Structure: membrane bound, contains DNA

Analogy – City Hall


D) Nuclear Envelope

Nuclear Envelope

  • Function: Regulates what enters or exits the nucleus.
  • Structure: Double Layer of Lipids

Analogy – Walls & Doors of City Hall


E) Nucleolus


  • Function: Produces RNA, which are used to make all proteins.
  • Structure: Inside Nucleus, separate from DNA

Analogy – The Mayor


F) DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA (chromatin)

  • Function: information on how to make proteins.
    • Chromatin – unorganized DNA (normal state)
    • Chromosomes – organized DNA (present before cell division
  • Structure: Made up of nucleotides, locked in the nucleus

Analogy – The Laws or City Code


G) Endoplasmic Reticulum

Rough ER

Smooth ER

  • Function: Transportation route for proteins.
    • Rough ER: has ribosomes
    • Smooth ER: no ribosomes
  • Structure: tubes and channels

Analogy – Roads & Sidewalks


H) Ribosomes


Free Ribosomes

  • Function: Makes proteins.
  • Structure: small circular organelles

Analogy – Restaurants, Factories, Builders.


I) Vacuoles & Vesicles


  • Function: Storage for water, nutrients or waste.
  • Structure: small membrane-bound organelle.

Analogy – Grocery stores, water tanks.


J) Lysosomes


  • Function: packets of enzymes that break down materials in a cell.
  • Structure: Small membrane-bound organelles

Analogy – Recycling center


K) Mitochondria


  • Function: Produce energy for the cell – site of cellular respiration. “The Powerhouse”
  • Structure: Double membrane-bound, kidney shaped.

Analogy – PG&E


L) Golgi Apparatus

Golgi Apparatus

  • Function: Packages, labels and ships proteins out of the cell.
  • Structure: Pancake-shaped layered organelle

Analogy – Post Office


M) Cytoskeleton



  • Function: Provide support and structure for the cell.
    • Microfilaments
    • Microtubules
  • Structure: Tubules

Analogy – Wood, cement, steel beams


N) Centrioles (Animals Only)


  • Function: microtubules that help divide the cell during cell division.
  • Structure: Tubules

Analogy – Rocklin High School vs. Whitney High School


O) Cilia & Flagella




  • Function: provides movement for the cell or objects moving by the cell.
  • Structure:
    • Flagella – 1 long fiber
    • Cilia – many short fibers

Analogy – Cars or bicycles.


P) Chloroplasts (Plants only)


  • Function: site of photosynthesis (converting sun and CO2 into sugar).
  • Structure: Membrane bound organelles that contain chlorophyll

Analogy – Solar Panels


Q) Cell Wall (Plant cells only)

Cell Wall

  • Function: Provides support for the cell and the plant.
  • Structure: Made of cellulose

Analogy – ground, rock wall

cell parts analogy
Cell Parts Analogy
  • Create an analogy (besides the city analogy) for the cell and its parts
  • Possible ideas:
    • Stadium
    • School
    • Country
    • Restaurant
    • House
    • Mall
    • Waterpark
stadium example
Stadium Example:
  • Cell membrane: wall of stadium, gates
  • Cytoplasm: everything inside the stadium.
  • Nucleus: the control room for the stadium.
  • Etc…