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Romanticism. Zsara Abuyo , Elizabeth Fetene , Erica Sauro , Ryan Silvestre Period 3. Romanticism. Originated in Europe during the 18 th century in response to the Industrial Revolution Due to the growth in cities, people began to long for nature Came to America during the 19 th century

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ZsaraAbuyo, Elizabeth Fetene, Erica Sauro, Ryan Silvestre

Period 3

  • Originated in Europe during the 18th century in response to the Industrial Revolution
    • Due to the growth in cities, people began to long for nature
  • Came to America during the 19th century
    • Like Europeans, focused on individualism, intuitive perception, and the assumption the natural world is inherently good while human society is corrupted
  • A revolt against the Enlightenment and Neoclassicism
    • Romanticism = Emotion, Intuition > Knowledge, Intellect
    • Neoclassic work had a lot of restraint and rules  romanticism expresses freely
  • Emphasizes the individual
  • Free from rules, spontaneous ; Solitary life > life in society
  • Fascination of the past  myths , mysticism in the middle ages
  • Imagination is superior to reason

*KEY WORDS: Emotion, Nature, Imagination, Intuition, Rebelliousness

romantic themes
Romantic Themes
  • Nationalism
    • Works were inspired by the common people or the masses instead of popular literary works
    • Interested in their own country, culture, folklore, etc.  grew a nationalistic spirit which reflected in their works
  • Individualism
    • Individuality, free expression of emotion, creative
    • Victor Hugo, romantic poet said romanticism is “liberalism in literature”
  • Revolution
    • translated French Revolution in to poetry
    • Mocks/criticizes wars and industrialism
    • Many wars during this era: Seven Years’ War, French Rev., American Rev.
  • The Hero
    • The Byronic Hero - Rebellious, Goes through suffering but never gives up. Has much passion
  • Nature and Love
    • Nature was the biggest inspiration to writers. Became a catalyst to human thought  inspires you to think

Victor Hugo, said romanticism is “liberalism in literature”

Lord Byron – created the Byronic Hero

literary techniques
Literary Techniques
  • Free Verse – poetry which is not written in traditional meter, but rhythmical
  • Synecdoche – a form of metaphor which mentions a part and signifies the whole
  • Meter – the repetition of a regular rhythmic unit in a line of poetry
  • Alliteration – the repetition of identical of similar consonant sounds
  • Lyric Poetry – a short poem of song like quality
  • Ballads -  a relatively short narrative poem, written to be sung, with a simple and dramatic action; they tell of love, death, the supernatural, or a combination.
  • Irony – contrast between actual meaning and the suggest of another meaning
  • Imagery – the images of a literary work
  • Allusion – a reference in a work of literature to something outside the work
  • Paradox –a situation that seems be contradictory but is true
  • Sonnet - normally a 14 line iambic pentameter poem
  • Stanza – a repeated grouping 0f 3 or more lines with the same meter and rhyme scheme
william wordsworth
William Wordsworth
  • Born on April 7, 1770 in Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the Lake District. Died on April 23, 1850.
  • The wonderful landscape deeply affected his imagination and gave him a love of nature.
  • Became an orphan at age 13 and was separated with his sister, Dorothy, but later reunited in 1795.
  • Became friends with Samuel Taylor Coleridge who helped write Lyrical Ballads(1798), and launched the English Romantic movement.
  • His poetry is most original in its vision of the organic relation between man and the natural world.
  • By the time he became widely appreciated by the critics and the public, his poetry lost much of its force and his radical politics had yielded to conservatism.


Lyrical Ballads, Poems in Two Volumes, The Excursion.

the world is too much with us
The world is too much with us

The world is too much with us; late and soon,

Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers;

Little we see in Nature that is ours;

We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!

This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon,

The winds that will be howling at all hours,

And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers,

For this, for everything, we are out of tune;

It moves us not. --Great God! I'd rather be

A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn;

So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,

Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn;

Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea;

Or hear old Triton blow his wreathèd horn.

  • A 14 line sonnet measured in iambic pentameter
    • Iambic Pentameter: Each line is divided into five pairs of two syllables each. Contains a stressed vowel followed by an unstressed vowel.
      • A pa-gansuck-led in a creed out-worn
      • Rhyme scheme: ABBA ABBA CDCDCD
  • Reflects his philosophy that humanity must get in touch with nature in order to progress spiritually.
  • Alliteration:
    • Line 1: The world is too much with us Line 2: we lay waste our powers
  • Metaphor:
    • Line 4: We have given our hearts away Comparison of hearts to attention or concern or to enthusiasm or life
    • Line 10: suckled in a creed outworn  Comparison of creed to a mother nursing her child
  • Oxymoron
    • Line 4: sordid boon – shameful gain
analysis cont
Analysis – cont.
  • late and soon: Our fixation on materialism has been a problem in the past and will continue to be a problem in the future. 
  • sordid boon: shameful gain; tarnished blessing. This phrase is an oxymoron, a form of paradox that juxtaposes contradictory words. 
  • suckled . . . outworn: Brought up in an outdated religion. 
  • Proteus: In Greek mythology, a sea god who could change shape at will and who possessed complete knowledge of the past, present, and future.  
  • Triton: In Greek mythology, a sea god who had the body of a man and the tail of a fish. He used a conch—the spiral shell of a mollusk—as a trumpet.
percy bysshe shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley
  • Born in England during 1792, died in 1822
  • Expelled from Oxford University for his atheistic views and was estranged from his father  during this time his controversial philosophies were developing
  • Was close friends with John Keats and Lord Byron and
  • Influenced by William Wordsworth
  • Passionate in life and generous to his friends, which caused him financial hardship
  • Attracted controversy for his challenges to religion, oppression, and his philosophy
  • Notable works: “Ode to the West Wind,” “Queen Mab”, “The Cloud”, “Ozymandias”

I met a traveler from an antique landWho said: "Two vast and trunkless legs of stoneStand in the desert… Near them on the sand,Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold commandTell that its sculptor well those passions readWhich yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed;And on the pedestal these words appear:`My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings;Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!'Nothing beside remains. Round the decayOf that colossal wreck, boundless and bare,The lone and level sands stretch far away.

  • A 14 line sonnet measured in iambic pentameter
    • Iambic Pentameter: Each line is divided into five pairs of two syllables each. Contains a stressed vowel followed by an unstressed vowel.

**Although the entire poem does not follow this exact pattern.

      • Line 4: “Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown”
      • Line 12: “Nothing besideremains: roundthe decay”
      • Rhyme scheme untraditional: 1-4 ABAB, 5-8 ACDC, 9-12 EDEF, 13-14 EF
  • Critical of human tyrants for everlasting glory
  • Central Theme: Mocks the vanity of tyrants who think they will have everlasting power  They’re foolish; rule is ephemeral
  • Uses a statue as a symbol  statue is Ramses II  large size = self-promotion, royal ambition
  • Irony: Claims he is the greatest king ever  but really, his statue is broken down in the desert
  • Alliteration and Consonance: Lines 13-14  to emphasize and recreate emptiness
  • Uses an unstopped vowel “ay” to end the poem  to emphasize the passing of time. Time keeps spending away from Ozymandias’ life. Fits in with the fact that he creates distance
john keats
John Keats
  • Born on October 31, 1795 in London
  • Both of his parents died when he was young
  • Lived with Richard Abbey & John Rowland Sandell shortly after
  • He was an apprentice for an apothecary surgeon & studied medicine
  • He met Leigh Hunt who introduced him to Percy Bysshe Shelly & William Woodsworth
  • He wrote a 4000 line erotic. allegorical romance Endymion.
  • Summer of 1818, he had to take care of his brother w/ TB. He feel in love with Fanny Brawne where his best works was written.


  • "Ode to a Grecian Urn"
  • "To Autumn"
  • "Ode to a Nightingale"
when i have fears that i may cease to be
When I have fears that I may cease to be

When I have fears that I may cease to be

Before my pen has glean'd my teeming brain,

Before high-piled books, in charactery,

Hold like rich garners the full ripen'd grain;

When I behold, upon the night's starr'd face,

Huge cloudy symbols of a high romance,

And think that I may never live to trace

Their shadows, with the magic hand of chance;

And when I feel, fair creature of an hour,

That I shall never look upon thee more,

Never have relish in the faery power

Or unreflecting love;--then on the shore

Of the wide world I stand alone, and think

Till love and fame to nothingness do sink



  • Alliteration of the key words "glean'd," garners," and "grain," as well as the repetition of r sounds in "charactery," "rich," "garners,"ripen'd," and "grain.".
  • The harvest metaphor contains a paradox: Keats is both the field of grain (his imagination is like the grain to be harvested) and he is the harvester (writer of poetry).
  • Exhibits fear that he may not achieve his full creative potential (“full ripened grain”) by the time death arrives (in the form of “high-piled books” he has written). 


  •  he sees the world as full of material he could transform into poetry (his is "the magic hand"); the material is the beauty of nature ("night's starr'd face") and the larger meanings he perceives beneath the appearance of nature or physical phenomena ("Huge cloudy symbols").
analysis cont1
Analysis – cont.


  • parallels the idea of little time, in being only three and a half lines, rather than the usual four lines of a Shakespearean sonnet; the effect  of this compression or shortening is of a slight speeding-up of time.
  •  He thinks about the human solitariness ("I stand alone") and human insignificance (the implicit contrast betwen his lone self and "the wide world"). The shore is a point of contact, the threshold between two worlds or conditions, land and sea; so Keats is crossing a threshold, from his desire for fame and love to accepting their unimportance and ceasing to fear and yearn. 


  • The poet's concern with time (not enough time to fulfill his poetic gift and love) is supported by the repetition of "when" at the beginning of each quatrain
  • attributes two qualities to love: (1) it has the ability to transform the world for the lovers ("faery power"), but of course fairies are not real, and their enchantments are an illusion and (2) love involves us with emotion rather than thought ("I feel" and "unreflecting love").
emily dickinson
Emily Dickinson
  • Born Dec. 10th 1830, in Amherst, Massachusetts
  • Intelligent as a young child
    • created rhyming stories as entertainment for her friends
  • Lived with a very strict father, "His heart was pure and terrible"
  • Ancestors were early Puritan settlers from England
  • Attended Amherst Academy and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary 
  • Secluded herself over time

Notable Works:

  • “Because I Could Not Stop for Death”
  • "I'm Nobody! Who are you?"
  • "A Bird came down the Walk"
i heard a fly buzz when i died
I heard a Fly Buzz – when I died

I heard a Fly buzz – when I died

The Stillness in the Room

Was like the Stillness in the Air –

Between the Heaves of Storm –

The Eyes around – had wrung them dry –

And Breaths were gathering firm

For that last Onset – when the King

Be witnessed – in the Room -

I willed my Keepstakes – Signed away

What portion of me be

Assignable – and then it was

There interposed a Fly –

With Blue – uncertain – stumbling Buzz –

Between the light – and me –

And then the Windows failed – and then I could not see to see -


1st stanza: 

  • "The Stillness in the Room" - creates peace, but isnt permanent "Was like the Stillness in the Air -/Between the Heaves of Storm -"

2nd Stanza:

  • "The Eyes around - had wrung them dry -/ And Breaths were gathering firm - shows that people are waiting for her death (done crying)
  • "For the last Onset - when the King/ Be witnessed - in the Room - represents God, who will lead her into the afterlife

3rd Stanza:

  • "I willed my Keepsakes - Signed away/ What portions of me be/ Assignable" - a Victorian Tradition - to will away away all material possessions 

4th Stanza

  • "uncertain stumbling Buzz -" - the fly distracts the speaker from "the light"
  • "And then the Windows failed - and then/ I could not see to see" - the speaker loses conscious and dies
analysis cont2
Analysis – cont.
  • Poem focuses on the last moments before dying
  • Repetition in 1st and 2nd stanza: "In the Room" - makes sure the reader knows the setting
    • It keeps the reader in the room
  • Fly - represents the minor character in the poem
    • Importance - focuses on the process of death
    • Represents the speakers inability to hold on to spirituality, faith, or hope, in the face of death
    • After the line "when the King/Be witnessed - in the Room -", the fly distracts the speaker reminding him/her about death which stands "Between the light"
  • Light - represents the after life
  • Poem says that there is an afterlife, after all. 
ap style prompts
AP Style Prompts
  • Read carefully the following poem by William Wordsworth (The world is too much with us), paying close attention to the relationship between man and nature. Then, write a well-written essay arguing that Wordsworth's theme remains highly relevant today. Be generous with examples of people "getting and spending" while ignoring—or even abusing—nature.
  • Read the poem When I Have Fears carefully. Then compose a well-organized essay on how the use of figurative language ties into the Romantic movement.
  • In the poem, "Ozymandias," the speaker finds a dilapidated statue of a king in the desert. In a well-organized essay, discuss how the poem's literary devices reveal the author's attitude toward tyranny and leadership.
i wandered lonely as a cloud w w
I wandered lonely as a cloud – W.W.

I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o'er vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the milky way,

They stretched in never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay:

Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

The waves beside them danced; but they

Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:

A poet could not but be gay,

In such a jocund company:

I gazed—and gazed—but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.


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  • Who wrote “The world is too much for us”?
  • Romanticism started in Europe during what century?
  • Why did people during Romanticism begin to have a longing for nature?
  • How is Romanticism different from Neoclassicism?
  • Who had early Puritan settlers from England ancestors?
  • Which poet was influenced by William Wordsworth?
  • Romanticism was a revolt against what?
  • Who was an apprentice for an apothecary surgeon?
  • Who helped Wordsworth write lyrical ballads?
  • Who said romanticism is “liberalism in literature”?
  • Name two themes in Romantic poetry?
  • What is literary technique called that uses the repetition of identical of similar consonant sounds?
  • Which author uses iambic pentameter in his poem about tyranny and leadership?
  • What is iambic pentameter?
  • How did romanticism create a nationalistic spirit?
works cited
Works Cited
  • Intro to Romanticism
  • William Wordsworth:
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley
  • John Keats
  • Emily Dickinson