ROMANTICISM THE BEGINNING OF A NEW AGE A radical change in European culture about the concept of human beings, world and poetry
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: • England changes from an agricultural society into a modern and industrial nation • There is an increase of population and the development of a factory system → urbanization (mushroom towns) • Increase of transports (railways, barges and canals) • Inhuman conditions of work • Important changes in agriculture NAPOLEON: - Contrast between France (Napoleon) and England (Nelson). After that there are a lot of poor people who lived in bad conditions of life FRENCH REVOLUTION: - Fear of Jacobinism (especially government – no reforms) but intellectuals and artists supported the French Revolution ROMANTICISM can be thought as a REACTION TO: CONCLUSIONS: • Fear of French Revolution ideas • Bad conditions of life (inhuman life for poor people and workers) • Associations of workers
NATURE IN ROMANTICISM: Josef Mallord William Turner, The shipwrek
English Romanticism is characterized by different literary genres:
Human passions are not expressed directly but more subtly Third person narrator The most prominent authors is Jane Austen Characters are usually set in the upper or middle levels of society NOVEL OF MANNERS It deals with codes and conventions of daily behaviour Visits, balls and teas are occasions for meeting and for discussions
It translates the concept of Sublime in the painting. All the feelings, that man perceive in front of the spectacles of Nature ROMANTIC ART William Turner, The burning of the house of lords and commons
ROMANTIC MUSIC (Composers: Beethowen, Brahms, Schumann, Schubert, Chopin) • Matter of continuity: • It maintains much of the structure of the music from the classical play • Composers work to expand the forms • Innovations: • A new approach to instrumental music • The orchestra conductor arises (before that this role was given to first violin and to harpsichordist) • Like art and literature, it evokes moods or inspire feelings of nationalism, love and awe
THE MAIN ISSUES OF ROMANTIC PHILOSOPHERS The problem of death. The disagreement between finite and infinite, so between man and nature. The meaning of life. It is considered as a reunion with the Total,so life doesn’t die, but returns to the whole universe. Philosophers belived that life is not desiderable because it is full of grief. It follows that man feels the aspiration towards the Infinite that can be achieved through art and especially through poetry.