The industrial revolution
1 / 22

The Industrial Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

The Industrial Revolution. Began in the mid 1700’s… but first…. II. Agricultural Revolution. A. Enclosure Movement 1.Wealthy landowners bought most of land from village farmers 2. Wealthy farmers wanted to increase harvest to increase profit

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Industrial Revolution' - meriel

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The industrial revolution l.jpg

The Industrial Revolution

Began in the mid 1700’s…

but first…

Ii agricultural revolution l.jpg
II. Agricultural Revolution

A. Enclosure Movement

1.Wealthy landowners bought most of land from village farmers

2. Wealthy farmers wanted to increase harvest to increase profit

a. looked to scientific revolution and enlightenment for ideas

b. kept careful records from one yr. to next to compare styles

c. shared ideas with other farmers

3. Seed drill invented, 1721

a. Jethro Tull- scientific farmer

b. scattering seeds was wasteful, dig trench

Ii agricultural revolution3 l.jpg
II. Agricultural Revolution

B. Crop Rotation

1. Two and three-field system of middle ages left land unused between harvests

a. 1/3 country land was not producing every year

2. Rotate Crops

a. One yr. plant wheat or barley—wears out soil

b. Next yr. plant turnips or clovers—restore soil

Ii agricultural revolution5 l.jpg
II. Agricultural Revolution

C. Improved livestock

  • Only allows best animals to breed

    a. increased weight and taste

Iii effects on population l.jpg
III. Effects on Population

A. Scientific Farming had 2 fold effect

1. Better livestock and rising crop = more food

a. Fewer people went hungry

2. Enclosure movement forced farmers off land and became labor force

a. Went to Colonies in America

b. Moved to City to look for work

B. Population doubled from 1750 to 1850

1. increased food

2. medical advances

3. better health = more marriages = more children

The industrial revolution more people more products necessary l.jpg

The Industrial RevolutionMore people = More products necessary

Iv great britain home of the industrial revolution l.jpg
IV. Great Britain—Home of the Industrial Revolution

A. Abundant National Resources

1. 3 Necessary resources

a. Water power—supplied energy for machines

b. Coal—supplied energy for machines

c. Iron ore—made machines, tools, bldgs., etc.

B. Geography—benefit of being an island

1. Overseas trade gave access to raw materials and markets

2. Trade= wealthy class of ship owners with $ to spare for new projects

Iv great britain home of the industrial revolution cont l.jpg
IV. Great Britain—Home of the Industrial Revolution cont.

C. Strong banking system

D. Political Stability

1. No war fought on British soil during 1700’s

2. Gov’t. favored economic growth with laws that encouraged investments

E. Favorable Climate for new ideas

1. Royal Society—“Club” for exchanging scientific ideas and practical inventions

V many new inventions l.jpg
V. Many New Inventions

A. Many were for textile industry

1. Sped up ability to weave and spin

2. Cotton Gin, 1793

a. Slaves picked 10 times more in a day

B. Factories

1. New machines too large for homes

2. Needed water to power machines, therefore factories needed to be near lakes and streams

C. Steam Engine

Vi transportation l.jpg
VI. Transportation

  • Canals

    B. Roads

    1. 1800’s improved roads

    2. large layers of rock filled with crushed rock

    3. Wagons could travel regardless of rain and mud

    C. Railroad

    1. Steam engine made this possible

    2. By 1820’s, hundreds were in operation

    3. used as transportation for work

Vi transportation13 l.jpg
VI. Transportation

3. Four Major Effects of Railroads

a. Encouraged further industrialization

1. faster, cheaper to transport raw materials and finished products

2. could build factories in more locations

b. Provided millions of new jobs

1. coal

2. iron

3. building of RR

c. Progress in Agriculture

1. farmers could send produce to markets

2. fishermen could sell fish in inland cities

4. Positive attitude about travel

1. leisure

2. commuting

Expansion of the industrial revolution l.jpg
Expansion of the Industrial Revolution

  • Great Britain led world until mid 19th century

    • Why successful?

      • Politically united

      • Common language

      • No internal tariffs

      • Wealthiest nation in the world

      • Colonies provided raw materials

      • Developed banking and credit

      • People accepted paper money

      • Improved roads and extensive water transportation (canals)

      • Stable government that protected private property

      • Entrepreneurial spirit

Factory abuses l.jpg
Factory Abuses do you think some problems may be?

  • Dreadful working conditions

    • Hours: 12-16 hrs per day, six days per week, ½ hour for lunch and supper

    • No job security, no minimum wage

    • Children and women employed in cotton mills and mines –

      • Factories and mines as orphanages

    • Women paid half of men’s wages

Govt reforms on child labor l.jpg
Govt. Reforms on Child Labor do you think some problems may be?

  • 1842 – Coal Mines Act – eliminated the employment of boys under ten and women in mines

  • 1847 – Ten Hours Act – reduced the workday for children between 13 and 18 to ten hours

    Consequence - Whole families worked

  • Social and political reform movements

    • Chartists, Utopian Socialists, Marxists

  • The growth of cities l.jpg
    The Growth of Cities do you think some problems may be?

    • Cities were centers for manufacturing, industry, and government

    • Made possible by steam engine, cheap labor, and transportation

    • Britain – had most large cities in Europe –

      London over 2,363,000 in 1850

    Miserable living conditions l.jpg
    Miserable living conditions do you think some problems may be?

    • Wealthy and middle class lived on outskirts – workers lived in center of city

    • Overcrowded, unsanitary, unhealthy

    • The Poor Law Commission in England in the 1820’s investigated living conditions – saw prostitution, crime, sexual immorality

    The telegraph l.jpg
    The Telegraph do you think some problems may be?

    • 1850: all major cities in eastern U.S. connected by telegraph lines

    • 1875: communication around the world in 5 minutes

    Demands for reform l.jpg
    Demands for Reform do you think some problems may be?

    • The Utopians

    • The Socialists

    • Karl Marx

      • We’ll get to them later

    • Unions – Workers demand reforms by joining together in groups

      • Want higher wages and better working conditions