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Virus!. Not Alive, But Still Deadly…. Bacteriophages or Virus?. Bacteriophages or Virus?. Bacteriophages attack bacteria (prokaryotes) viruses attack eukaryotic cells (animal and plant cells).

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Not Alive,

But Still Deadly…

bacteriophages or virus3
Bacteriophages or Virus?
  • Bacteriophages attack bacteria (prokaryotes)
  • viruses attack eukaryotic cells (animal and plant cells).
  • Viruses and bacteriophages take over cells and use the host cell's organelles to make more of their own parts.
viral size and structure6
Viral Size and Structure
  • Virus shape is determined by the DNA/RNA and protein coat covering its genome (DNA/RNA)
  • Basic structure:
    • Capsid: Protein coat
    • Nucleic acid core: RNA or DNA
      • Genome can be single or double stranded
      • Helps determine shape of virus
    • Lipoprotein coat
      • Envelopes (covers) capsid in some viruses
virus categories
Virus Categories
  • DNA viruses – stable, do not mutate rapidly
    • Single-stranded or double-stranded
    • Includes Smallpox and Hepatitis B
  • RNA viruses – mutate rapidly, unstable
    • Single-stranded or double-stranded
    • Includes HIV and Rhinovirus
the lytic cycle
The Lytic Cycle
  • Virus attaches to host cell’s membrane and injects its nucleic acid into the host cell.
  • The viral nucleic acid takes over protein synthesis, creating new viruses.
  • The host cell bursts, lyses, releasing the newly formed viruses.
the lysogenic cycle
The Lysogenic Cycle
  • Nucleic acid of virus becomes part of the host cell’s chromosome
  • Nucleic acid remains in the cell in this form for many generations
hiv and aids
  • HIV is a retrovirus that leads to AIDS
  • The virus kills or damages cells of the body's immune system, progressively destroying the body's ability to fight infections
  • 25 million people worldwide have died from AIDS
  • A combination of at least three drugs is recommended to suppress the virus from replicating and boost the immune system
  • There is no cure for HIV and AIDS
  • Caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and common in children under 12
  • Highly contagious, itch rash
  • Children can be vaccinated against the disease
    • Some children may still get chickenpox though
    • Those that have had chickenpox have a natural immunity to the disease
  • VZV can lie dormant within the body and cause shingles later in life
  • Two common types: Influenza A and Influenza B
  • Flu Symptoms include:
    • fever (usually high), headache, extreme tiredness, dry cough, sore throat, runny/stuffy nose, muscle aches
    • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can occur but are more common in children
  • 5% to 20% of U.S. residents will get influenza each year
    • 36000 people on average die from influenza-related causes
    • 200,000+ will admitted to the hospital as a result of influenza-related causes.
smallpox and vaccination19
Smallpox and Vaccination
  • Edward Jenner is credited with the first vaccination against smallpox
  • Country-lore suggested that people who caught cowpox from their cows did not get smallpox
    • Jenner transferred material from the pocks of a dairymaid to James Phipps, the 8 year old son of his gardener
    • James became mildly ill from cowpow
  • Weeks later, Jenner infected James with smallpox
    • No infection now or during future trials
  • The first vaccination published was a success!