Survey of Microorganisms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Survey of Microorganisms
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Survey of Microorganisms

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  1. Survey of Microorganisms Virus Bacteria Cyanobacteria Algae Fungi protozoa

  2. VIRUS • Obligated intracellular parasite. • host specific: • bacteriophage • animal virus • plant virus • according to its genetic material • DNA virus • RNA virus • Shape: Most common shape is icosahedral , some are helical shape • Structure: Protein capsid and genetic material some animal virus have envelope with glycoprotein spikes • Life cycle: lytic infection lysogenic infection • Some animal virus are closely associated with certain cancers

  3. Comparison of naked and enveloped viruses

  4. The replication cycle of a bacterial virus(1)

  5. The replication cycle of a bacterial virus(2)

  6. The replication cycle of a bacterial virus(3)

  7. Consequences of infection by a temperate bacteriophage

  8. Quantification of a bacterial virus by plaque assay

  9. Viral genomes

  10. Plus/minus strand designation

  11. Formation of mRNA by different types of viruses

  12. Rolling circle replication of bacteriophage lambda

  13. Shapes and relative sizes of vertebrate viruses(1)

  14. Shapes and relative sizes of vertebrate viruses(2)

  15. Possible effects of animals virus infection on cells

  16. Retrovirus structure and function(1)

  17. Replication process of a retroviruses(1)

  18. Replication process of a retroviruses(2)

  19. Retrovirus structure and function(2)

  20. Retrovirus Gene Structure • Gag : group antigens • Pol : Reverse Transcriptase • Env : Envelope • Src : Code forProtein Kinase, responsible for the malignant transformation Onc: Oncogen is analogous to the Src gene - induce transformation

  21. DNA tumor virus 1. Epstein Bar Virus – Burkitt’s Lymphoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma 2. Herpes Simplex type 2 – carcinoma of uterine cervix 3. Papilloma virus – uterine cervix 4. Hepatitis B – liver carcinoma

  22. Taxonomy (1) • 1. Species: Organism sharing a set of biological traits and reproducing only their exact kind. (Species is the fundamental unit in taxonomy) a. strain: organisms within the species varying in a given quality b. types: organisms within the species varying immunologically. 2. Genus: closely related species 3. Family : closely related genera

  23. Taxonomy (2) • 4. Order: closely related families • 5. Class : closely related order • 6. Phylum: related classes Use nutritional patterns, as well as structure ones and biochemical properties, provide guidelines for classification of microorganisms. E.g.. Autotrophy, heterotopy, oxygen requirement etc.

  24. Superkingdom Prokaryotes Kingdom Monera Bacteria Cyanobacteria

  25. Internal cell structure (1)

  26. SuperkingdomEukaryotes Kingdom Protista Branch protophyta (Plant like protist) algae Branch protomycota (fungus like protists) slime mold Branch Protozoa (animal like protists) amoeba

  27. Internal cell structure (2)

  28. The electron micrographs of representatives

  29. Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia