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Survey of Microorganisms. Virus Bacteria Cyanobacteria Algae Fungi protozoa. VIRUS. Obligated intracellular parasite. host specific: bacteriophage animal virus plant virus according to its genetic material DNA virus RNA virus Shape:

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survey of microorganisms

Survey of Microorganisms







  • Obligated intracellular parasite.
  • host specific:
      • bacteriophage
      • animal virus
      • plant virus
  • according to its genetic material
      • DNA virus
      • RNA virus
  • Shape:

Most common shape is icosahedral , some are helical shape

  • Structure:

Protein capsid and genetic material some animal virus have

envelope with glycoprotein spikes

  • Life cycle: lytic infection lysogenic infection
  • Some animal virus are closely associated with certain cancers
retrovirus gene structure
Retrovirus Gene Structure
  • Gag : group antigens
  • Pol : Reverse Transcriptase
  • Env : Envelope
  • Src : Code forProtein Kinase, responsible for the malignant transformation

Onc: Oncogen is analogous to the Src gene - induce transformation

dna tumor virus
DNA tumor virus

1. Epstein Bar Virus – Burkitt’s Lymphoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

2. Herpes Simplex type 2 – carcinoma of uterine cervix

3. Papilloma virus – uterine cervix

4. Hepatitis B – liver carcinoma

taxonomy 1
Taxonomy (1)
  • 1. Species: Organism sharing a set of biological traits and reproducing only their exact kind. (Species is the fundamental unit in taxonomy)

a. strain: organisms within the species varying in a given quality

b. types: organisms within the species varying immunologically.

2. Genus: closely related species

3. Family : closely related genera

taxonomy 2
Taxonomy (2)
  • 4. Order: closely related families
  • 5. Class : closely related order
  • 6. Phylum: related classes

Use nutritional patterns, as well as structure ones and biochemical properties, provide guidelines for classification of microorganisms. E.g.. Autotrophy, heterotopy, oxygen requirement etc.

Superkingdom Prokaryotes

Kingdom Monera




Kingdom Protista

Branch protophyta

(Plant like protist)


Branch protomycota (fungus like protists)

slime mold

Branch Protozoa

(animal like protists)


Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Animalia


It is a procaryotes, different from bacteria.

  • Cell Membrane

Form lipid monolayer instead of lipid bilayer (in methanogens and thermophilic archaebacteria)

  • Cell Wall

Archaebacteria has no muramic acid and D-amino acids.

Had pseudopeptidoglycan (use N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid).

Most of them are thermphile or halophilic, or methanogens. Anaerobic.

summary of major differentiating features between eubacteria archaebacteria and eucaryotes
Summary of major differentiating features between eubacteria, archaebacteria and eucaryotes
  • Typical prokaryotes.
    • Three shapes: cocci, bacilli and spiral
    • Can be autotroph or heterotroph
    • Autotroph: photoautotroph or chemoautotroph
  • Heterotroph: parasite or saprophyte
    • According to Gram stain: G+ or G-
    • Type of reproduction: binary fission
    • Some genetic material transfer:
    • transformation, transduction and conjugation
  • Blue green algae, in both fresh and marine water.
  • A typical procayrotic living organism
  • Autotroph, photosynthesis machinery is very similar to higher plants.
  • No chloroplast, have chlorophyll and other pigments such as phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, carotene etc.
  • Three forms: unicellular, colonial and filaments.
  • Some filament cyanobacteria have heterocyst that can fix N2 to ammonia.
  • e.g. Anacystis , Oscillatoria
  • Eucaryotic living organisms
  • Heterotroph

(1) unicellular yeast

(2) muticellular molds

1 yeast
(1) Yeast
  • Reproduction:

Budding processes (asexual reproduction) forming buds on the mother cell when mature, punch off to become new single yeast cells. sex spores (sexual reproduction), produce sex spores following the fusion of two separate cells.

  • Many yeast convert carbohydrates to alcohol for alcoholic beverages (e.g. Saccharomycescerevisiae)
  • Some are used to raise bread (produce CO2 in the dough)
multicellular fungi
Multicellular fungi
  • More complex than yeast, many of them become visible as “mildew” in damp weather. have hair like structure (mycelium)
  • Sexual and asexual reproduction
  • Some mold are responsible for the flavor of fine cheeses.
  • Major sources of antibiotics
  • e.g. Penicilliumchrysogenum for penicillin
slim mold lower fungi
Slim Mold (lower fungi)
  • This is a lower fungi, in Protista and protomycota.
  • It is similar to fungi, but distinct.
  • Heterotroph.
  • They live in cool, shady moist places in nature - on decaying wood, dead leaves or other damp organic matter.
  • Eucaryotic living organisms
  • Autotroph:

Carry out a green plant type of photosynthesis resulting in the photolysis of water and the evolution of O2.

  • Mainly aquatic in nature.
  • Some of the primitive ones are classified in protista; complex multicellular types are placed in plant kingdom.
  • Three forms: unicellular, filaments and colonial.
  • 7 classes on the basis of their cellular structure, pigment composition. Only five will be discussed in here and differentiate them using food storage particles.
  • e.g. euglena, spirogyra and cladophora.
  • Euglenoids

eg. Euglena

food storage is a lipoid polysaccharide - paramylum

  • Green algae

eg. Chlamydomonas

food storage - starch

  • Golden Brown algae

eg. Diatoms

food storage – oil and leucosin (a polysaccharide)

have fucoxanthin, a brownish pigment

  • Brown Algae

Mainly marine water algae

food storage – laminarin, a polysaccharide and mannitol, a sugar alcohol

  • Fire Algae


eg. Peridinium

food storage – starch, fat, oils

  • Unicellular, heterotroph
  • Animal like, move, they are either free living or parasites.
  • A wide variety of shapes and sizes

some elongated, some are oval.

  • Sizes: from 5-10 um to 1-2 mm.
  • Sexual or asexual reproduction
  • e.g. amoebas, paramecium
  • Asexually some exhibit sexual reproduction. Cyst, enables them to survive drought, heat and freezing.
  • Three Phyla:
  • Sarcomastigophora
    • subphyla Sarcodina Pseudopods eg. Amoeba
    • Mastigophora Zooflagellates eg. Heteronema
  • Ciliophora: most advanced and structurally complex of protozoa.
  • eg. Paramecium, Blepharisma, Stentor
  • Sporazoa
  • internal parasites eg. Plasmodium, the malarial parasite.