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Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Presentation by Tristan Vranizan. History. TMV: the first virus to be discovered Late 19th Century: Researchers found out that a tiny infectious agent was the cause of a disease that was killing tobacco plants.

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tobacco mosaic virus tmv

Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)

Presentation by Tristan Vranizan

history
History
  • TMV: the first virus to be discovered
  • Late 19th Century: Researchers found out that a tiny infectious agent was the cause of a disease that was killing tobacco plants.
  • Wendell Stanley coaxed the virus to form crystals and found out that it was mainly composed of proteins.
  • RNA (Ribonucleic acid) was also discovered in the virus

Wendell Stanley >>

Won Nobel prize for his study.

description of molecule
Description of Molecule
  • TMV has one strand of RNA, shown in red.
  • RNA is wrapped with stacks of protein, shown in blue.
  • Protein Coat: 2,130 copies of a small protein stack on top of each other, spiraling downward.
  • RNA strand is encoded in four proteins, transporting the RNA from cell to cell and allowing the virus to spread.
infection
Infection
  • TMV is so stable it can survive in cigars for years made from infected tobacco leaves.
  • The coat of proteins, around the RNA strand, protect it from any enzymes trying to kill it.
  • But, in order for TMV to spread it has to release it’s coat of proteins for the RNA to enter a cell
  • The proteins, situated outside the cell, repel against each other. This allows the cell to release RNA back into the coat of proteins to spread again.

Healthy tobacco leaf >

< TMV infected leaf

assembly
Assembly
  • Mixing RNA with capsid proteins creates a functional virus.
  • Two steps create this process
  • Step 1: Proteins form into a two-layer disk, RNA then fills the hole at the center causing the proteins to form into a ring, eventually covering the RNA.
  • Step 2: RNA is ensured to being packaged into viruses with its’ need for an initiation sequence.
structure
Structure
  • 17 subunits surround the RNA in red.
  • RNA is located in the grooves of the protein, wedged between them.
  • 3 nucleotides bind each protein subunit.
structure continued
Structure (continued)
  • The bright red dots are the acidic amino acids.
  • They help to break up the virus inside infected cells.
picture references
Picture References
  • http://erec.ifas.ufl.edu/tomato-scouting-guide/images/diseases/tobacco-mosaic135.JPG
  • http://erec.ifas.ufl.edu/tomato-scouting-guide/diseases/tobacco-mosaic-virus.shtml
  • http://matyasciprian.hu/kepek/paprika_betegsegek/paprika_tmv_3.JPG