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Female Reproduction: Cyclicity and Pregnancy. Dr. N. Matthew Ellinwood, D.V.M., Ph.D. January 29, 2014. Iowa State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. http://www.ivis.org/signin.asp?url=http://www.ivis.org/home.asp. The Bitch and the Queen. Historical Aspects

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female reproduction cyclicity and pregnancy

Female Reproduction: Cyclicity and Pregnancy

Dr. N. Matthew Ellinwood, D.V.M., Ph.D.

January 29, 2014

Iowa State University

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

slide2

http://www.ivis.org/signin.asp?url=http://www.ivis.org/home.asphttp://www.ivis.org/signin.asp?url=http://www.ivis.org/home.asp

the bitch and the queen
The Bitch and the Queen
  • Historical Aspects

- Bitch vs. queen

      • Driving forces of research with dogs and cats
  • Practical aspects
    • Under ideal situations, neither have difficulty becoming pregnant
    • A variety of issues favor greater attention to the bitch for managed reproduction
      • Reproductive physiology
      • Breed characteristics
        • English bulldogs can’t naturally reproduce successfully
      • Management
canine and feline estrous cycle
Canine and Feline Estrous Cycle
  • Estrus – period of sexual receptivity
    • heat, season, standing
  • Bitch
    • Monestrous
  • Queen
    • Seasonally polyestrous: multiple estrus cycles depending on the season
endocrinology of estrous cycle
Endocrinology of Estrous Cycle
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
  • Positive feedback loop
  • Pulsatile secretion of GnRH
  • Pituitary release of FSH and LH
  • Recruitment of ovarian follicles
    • Gonadatrope independent
      • haven’t developed LH and FSH receptors
    • Gonadatrope dependent
      • possessing receptors for LH and FSH
estrus
Estrus
  • Beginning is influenced by estrogen and FSH
  • Escalation of positive feedback loop between ovary hypothalamus and pituitary leads to
    • LH surge
    • Ovulation: 24-48 hours after LH peak
  • Decline of estrogen and rise of progesterone
    • Triggers behavioral estrus in bitch; receptivity
trigger for estrous cycle
Trigger for Estrous Cycle
  • Canine
    • Unknown
    • Domestic dog cycle length is about every 6 months
      • Exception – Basenji, which is about every 12 months
  • Feline
    • Light/Day length
      • Long day breeders
      • ~ Feb – Sept
    • Induced ovulators
      • No spontaneous LH surge
      • Ovulation induced by the penile spines of the tom
basenji african barkless dog
BasenjiAfrican Barkless Dog

http://www.puppyfind.com/basenji.php

feline estrous cycle
Feline Estrous Cycle
  • Anestrus
    • October – January
  • Estrus occurs
    • February – September
  • Polyestrous
    • Proestrus 1-2 days
    • Estrus ~ 7 days
      • Behavioural change - Lordosis
      • External track shows no change
      • Bred or Not Bred
feline cycle continued
Feline Cycle Continued
  • Not bred
    • Interestrus ~ 4 days
    • Cycle total ~ 14 days
  • Non fertile breeding or stimulated to ovulate
    • LH surge, CL forms
    • Metestrus/diestrus/psuedopregnacy ~ 36 days
      • Progesterone remains high
    • Cycle total ~ 45 days
feline pregnancy
Feline Pregnancy
  • Luteotrophic factors produced by conceptus
    • Maintains CL function throughout pregnancy
  • Fertilization in oviduct (remain 5-6 days)
  • Implantation 11-14 days
  • Palpation 17-25
  • Parturition 66 days after first breeding
  • Dystocia
    • Rare in the queen
reproductive cycle of the bitch the vocabulary and calendar
Reproductive Cycle of the BitchThe Vocabulary and Calendar
  • First Cycle
    • 6 to 18 months of age
  • Proestrus
    • Bloody vaginal discharge to standing heat
  • Estrus
    • Standing heat to refusal
  • Diestrus
    • Refusal of breeding to whelping or until luteolysis
  • Anestrus
    • Whelping to onset of next cycle
canine estrous cycle
Canine Estrous Cycle
  • Anestrus ~ 4 months
  • Proestrus ~ 9 days (25-3)
    • Turgid swelling of vulva, bloody discharge, attractive to male, will not “flag” or stand to be bred
canine estrous cycle continued

tovet.blogspot.com/2007/11/pyometra-in-cat.html

Canine Estrous CycleContinued
  • Estrus ~ 9 days
  • Diestrus/Metestrus/Psuedopregnancy
    • ~ 45-60 days
    • High progesterone
    • Pregnancy associated

behavioral and physiological responses

    • Pyometra risk
  • Pregnancy = 65 days from LH surge (+/- 1 day)
    • ~9 weeks
vaginal cytology
Vaginal cytology
  • Parabasal cells
  • Intermediate cells
  • Superficial cells
endocrinology of the cycle why we see what we see
Endocrinology of the Cycle:Why we see what we see
  • Proestrus
    • Estrogen is increasing, produced by follicles, which are the functional unit of the ovary that matures the egg
    • Estrogen causes
      • growth and bleeding in the uterus, which results in bloody vaginal discharge
      • cellular thickening of the wall of the vaginal canal with increases of sloughed cells seen on cytology as superficial cells
cytology of proestrus

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/vc/proestrus.jpghttp://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/vc/proestrus.jpg

Cytology of Proestrus

Increasing cornification of epithelial cells of the vaginal wall

endocrinology of the cycle why we see what we see1
Endocrinology of the Cycle:Why we see what we see
  • Estrus
    • Estrogen is decreasing, while progesterone is increasing
    • This combination causes onset of “standing heat”, which is the hallmark of estrus
      • 48 hours after the spike in luetenizing hormone
      • Roughly consistent with ovulation
    • Cytological estrus is ~95% superficial cells
cytology of estrus

http://bakerinstitute.vet.cornell.edu/contentimages/library/fac-meyers-canine_image2.gifhttp://bakerinstitute.vet.cornell.edu/contentimages/library/fac-meyers-canine_image2.gif

Cytology of Estrus
endocrinology of the cycle why we see what we see2
Endocrinology of the Cycle:Why we see what we see
  • Diestrus
    • Period of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy with progesterone being the dominant hormone
    • Onset of diestrus is probably caused by a decline of estrogen below a threshold level
    • Onset is evaluated in two ways
      • Behavior: The bitch refuses to stand for breeding
      • Cytology: Sharp decline in % of superficial cells on vaginal cytology. May see a “neutrophil spike”
overview of the cycle
Overview of the cycle

http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/vc/

canine pregnancy and parturition
Canine Pregnancy and Parturition
  • Timing
    • Parturition can be 55-70 days from first breeding
  • Endocrinology
    • 65 days +/- 1 day from LH surge
  • Why the difference?
peculiarities of the bitch and stud
Peculiarities of the Bitch and Stud
  • Ovulation of immature oocyte
    • Has not completed meiosis
    • Fertilization can occur over 5 days
  • Canine sperm can be long lived in tract
  • Variability in sub-cycle lengths
    • Proestrus (3-25 days)
    • Estrus (5-12 days)
    • Chemistry
canine pregnancy days relative to lh surge
Canine Pregnancy(days relative to LH surge)
  • Ovulation (day 2)
  • Fertilization in the oviduct (day 3 – 8)
  • Maturation of ova (day 5)
  • 4- 8 cell embryo (bred early and late) in oviduct (day 9)
  • Uterine horns (day 12)
  • Migration (day 13-17)
  • Implantation (day 22)
  • Palpation (day 25-35)
canine pregnancy continued days relative to lh surge
Canine Pregnancy Continued(days relative to LH surge)
  • X-rays of skull and spine (day 46)
  • X-rays of teeth (day 60)
  • Beginning of progesterone decline and nesting behavior (day 62)
  • Decline of progesterone to below 2 ng/ml (day 64)
  • Decline of body temp by 2.5 degree C (day 64)
  • Parturition (day 65)