How do organisms reproduce ?. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Fission Fragmentation Regeneration Vegetative Propagation Spore Formation. WHAT IS REPRODUCTION ?. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Reproduction in Flowering Plants Reproduction in Human Beings. DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC ACID (DNA).
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WHAT IS REPRODUCTION ?
DNA DUPLICATION AND REPLICATION
Variation is important for the survival of species as it allows some individuals to withstand and changes in the environment or niches
DNA Copying means the production of an exact copy of the original . But the process of copying DNA will have some variation each time which leads to the stability of the population and formation of new species .
Reproduction is the process by which organisms generate new individuals of the same kind.
Reproduction is classified into 2 types;
from any specialized or unspecialized part of
a single parent without fertilization.
It is the type of asexual reproduction in which the parent cell splits into two or more daughter cells. The division can take place in any plane.
BINARY FISSION IN AMOEBA
MULTIPLE FISSION IN PLASMODIUM
Fragmentation in Spirogyra
It is the type of asexual reproduction in which the parent cell cut or brake up into several pieces, and each piece will develop into a new individual.
Regeneration in Planaria
It is the type of reproduction in which a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site and the bud will develop to a new individual, when fully mature and detach from the parent body.
Budding in Hydra
It is the type of asexual reproduction in which the plant parts like the root, stem and leaves develop into new plants.
Spore Formation in Rhizopus
young ones are formed due to the process
of gamete formation.
Flower is a reproductive unit of a plant
Parts of a flower include sepals, petals, stamen and stigma (pistil)
Pistil is the female reproductive part.
Pistil consists of stigma, style and ovary
Stamen is the male reproductive part
Stamen consists of filament, anther and pollen
The plants developed by vegetative propagation are genetically similar
Plants developed by vegetative propagation bear flowers and fruits earlier than those raised from seeds
Hundreds of genetically similar plants can be propagated from a single parent plant
The plants which don’t produce viable seeds can be propagated only by this method
It needs lass attention than those raised from seeds
Transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower
Transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of another flower of the same plant or different plant of the same species
2. secretion of male hormone testosterone
Female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries which are located in the abdominal cavity near kidneys each ovary contains a large number of follicles which on maturation at puberty becomes eggs
Near the posterior end of each kidney there is a funnel shaped structure called fallopian tube or oviduct . The fallopian tube opens in to the uterus .the uterus opens in to vagina through cervix
Functions of ovary 1. production of egg or ovum
2. secretion of female hormone
.Seminal vesicle secretes an alkaline viscous liquid semen which provides nutrients to the sperm
.Prostrate gland secretes a milky fluid which makes the sperms to transport faster
Cowper’s gland secrets a fluid which acts as a lubricant
Placenta is special disc shaped tissue found
on the inner wall of the uterus . The embryo gets nutrients and oxygen from the mothers blood with the help of placenta through umbilical cord
it also transport waste materials and carbon dioxide from the foetus to the mothers blood
The inner lining of the uterine wall slowly breaks and comes out through the vagina as blood and mucous known as menstruation
It occurs every month and lasts for 2 to 5 days
Natural methods –abstinence and withdrawal
Abstain from coitus from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle
Withdrawal of the penis from vagina before ejaculation
Barrier method – in this method , physical devices such as condom , diaphragms, cervical ca[ps etc are used which prevents the entry of sperm in to the female genital tract during mating
IUCD s such as loop and copper T are safely placed safely inside the uterus which prevent fertilization and implantation . the copper ions suppresses the mobility and fertilizing capacity of the sperms
Chemical methods –use of oral or vaginal pills or chemicals that change the hormonal balance of the body so they prevent the ovulation and fertilization –
surgical methods – in this method a small portion of the vas deferens in males and fallopian tubes in females are surgically legated or tied .it is called vasectomy in males and tubectomy in females ‘It is an ideal method of contraception
1.HIV—Human Immunodeficiency Virus
2.AIDS---Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
3.IUCD---Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device
5.STD---Sexually Transmitted Diseases
6.STI---Sexually Transmitted Infections
7.RTI---Reproductive Tract Infections
8.ARSH---Adolescence Reproductive and Sexual Health
K.V NO 1 CPCRI KASARAGOD