Animal Reproduction and Development. Reproduction Song. Animals reproductive by asexual and sexual methods: Asexual is the production of offspring with genes all from one individual, without the fusion of gametes. Sexual involves formation of gametes and fertilization, genetic variation.
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Asexual Methods Include:
Budding in Hydra Starfish Regeneration
Gemmules in Sponges
Honey bees: drones are males and are produced parthenogeneticly and female workers and queens form from fertilized eggs.
Queen Worker (female) Drone (male)
Hermaphroditism: individual has both male and female reproductive systems
Aquatic animals tend to be external
Terrestrial animals tend to be internal
Development can be external in the water, external on land, or internal.
Oviparous: lay eggs, Amniotic eggs are terrestrial eggs
Ovoviparous: live birth from eggs (some sharks and snakes)
Viviparous: live placental birth
Number of Eggs: ?
Parental Care: ?
Introduction to Reproduction System
Male Reproductive System video
Male Reproductive System detailed video
The male reproductive system produces sperm cells and provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.
Identify the role of:
Vasectomy Surgery video
Meiosis produces gametes in the seminiferous tubules.
Female Reproductive System video
This is the state of the egg when fertilized
Ovarian Cycle video
What happens in the ovary, uterus, and pituitary glands?
Uterine Cycle video
Menopause: cessation of cycle, ages 46-54, ovaries lose response to FSH & LH
Cleavage occurs over several days following fertilization. The zygote divides as it travels through the oviduct. By the time the cilia of the oviduct deliver the embryo to the uterus, the embryo is a ball of cells called a blastocyst. The blastocyst implants in the endometrium.
Four membranes protect and nourish the embryo, which consists of three tissue layers.
Nutrients and waste products are exchanged between the fetus and the mother within the placenta. The umbilical vein (red) carries oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the fetus. The umbilical arteries are blue, indicating that they carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products away from the fetus.
Placental circulation: materials are exchanged by diffusion, active transport, and selective absorption. Not by direct blood contact.
Structure and function of the placenta video
5 weeks 14 weeks 20 weeks
Blood Incompatibility video
Name the hormones:
Epigenesis: animal emerges gradually from the egg
Preformation: shows infant in sperm from 1694 engraving “homunculus”
Changes that occur in the egg after fertilization video
Rapid cell division without growth produces cells called blastomeres.
View the sea urchin development video on the CD
Gastrulation rearranges the blastula to form a three-layered embryo with a primitive gut
Development after fertilization video
Organogenesis in a frog embryo
View frog development video on CD
Identify the membranes that provide supporting functions
Protection from mechanical shock
Disposal of uric acid
How extraembryonic membranes support chick video
Cells of the yolk sac digest yolk providing nutrients to the embryo.
The amnion encloses the embryo in a fluid-filled amniotic sac which protects the embryo from drying out.
The chorion cushions the embryo against mechanical shocks.
The allantois functions as a disposal sac for uric acid.
Most major organs have formed
Formation of structures in embryo video
Impact of Drugs and Chemicals on Fetal Development video
During labor, hormones stimulate the uterus to contract. The contractions push the baby out of the mother's body.