Literary terms
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Literary Terms. Point of View. The relationship of the narrator, or storyteller, to the story. It is the style in which the story is told. - 1st Person - Limited 3rd Person Omniscient Voice (3rd Person). First Person Narrative.

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Point of view
Point of View

  • The relationship of the narrator, or storyteller, to the story. It is the style in which the story is told.

    - 1st Person - Limited 3rd Person

    • Omniscient Voice (3rd Person)


First person narrative
First Person Narrative

  • This occurs when the story is told by one of the characters. The reader will generally see everything through this character’s eyes.


Limited third person narrative
Limited Third Person Narrative

  • This occurs when the narrator is outside the story, but reveals the thoughts of one character.


Omniscient third person narrative
Omniscient Third Person Narrative

  • This point of view occurs when the author reveals the thoughts of several characters.


Characterization
Characterization

  • The method in which an author chooses to develop the personalities of their characters.


Direct characterization

When the author makes a direct statement about a character’s personality.

“Bill is loyal.”

Direct Characterization


Indirect characterization

When an author reveals a character’s personality through their words, actions, or dialogue between characters.

“Bill raced into the water to save the sinking swimmer.”

Indirect Characterization


Conflict
Conflict their words, actions, or dialogue between characters.

  • The events of a story almost always focuses on the struggle between two opposing forces.


Internal conflict
Internal Conflict their words, actions, or dialogue between characters.

  • This takes place in a character’s mind. (i.e. A character may struggle mentally with a difficult decision, unpleasant truth, or adversity.)


External conflict
External Conflict their words, actions, or dialogue between characters.

  • This exists between a character and an outside force such as another character, nature, or society, etc.


Literary terms
Plot their words, actions, or dialogue between characters.

  • The sequence of events in a story, play, or novel where each event leads to, or causes, the next event.

    • Exposition

    • Narrative Hook

    • Rising Action

    • Climax

    • Falling Action

    • Resolution


Foreshadowing
Foreshadowing their words, actions, or dialogue between characters.

  • The use of clues by the author to prepare readers for events that will happen in the story.


Tone setting

The attitude taken by the author or speaker toward the subject or work.

Cold, Hot, Happy, Sad, Frightening, Mysterious, etc.

The time and place in which the events of a story take place.

ToneSetting


Irony
Irony subject or work.

  • The difference between reality and what seems to be real.

    • The use of words to express something different from and often opposite to their literal meaning.

    • An expression or utterance marked by a deliberate contrast between apparent and intended meaning.

    • A literary style employing such contrasts for humorous or rhetorical effect.


Verbal irony
Verbal Irony subject or work.

  • When a person says one thing and means another.


Situational irony
Situational Irony subject or work.

  • When the actual outcome is the opposite of someone’s expectations.


Dramatic irony
Dramatic Irony subject or work.

  • This occurs when the audience has important information that the characters in a literary work do not.


Short stories defined
Short Stories – Defined subject or work.

  • A brief narrative in prose that is based on conflict, or a character under stress.

  • It’s purpose is to be concise, have

    meaning and often show

    the true nature of people.

    - Irish author, James Joyce,

    called the short story an

    “epiphany” or “revelation”.


Short stories a brief history
Short Stories – A Brief History subject or work.

  • Short stories, like all forms of storytelling, were passed by word of mouth at first.

  • The earliest written short stories date back to around 4000 BC and they were written on papyri.


The renaissance
The Renaissance subject or work.

  • Giovanni Boccaccio, known as the father of modern fiction, was one of the first authors to write in prose.

    • Dating back to the Romans and Greeks before them, most authors wrote in poetic verse.


The 19 th century
The 19 subject or work.th Century

  • There was conscious effort to bring the short story to a higher form of art.

    US – Poe & Hawthorne

    France – Balzac & Maupassant

    Germany - Hoffman