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The Respiratory System. LUNG CAKE. Functions of the Respiratory System. Obtain O 2 from environment Expel CO 2 into the environment Filter foreign particle out of incoming air Regulates H 2 O content and temperature of incoming air Creates vocal sounds Contributes to sense of smell

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functions of the respiratory system
Functions of the Respiratory System
  • Obtain O2from environment
  • Expel CO2 into the environment
  • Filter foreign particle out of incoming air
  • Regulates H2O content and temperature of incoming air
  • Creates vocal sounds
  • Contributes to sense of smell
  • Helps regulate blood pH
steps for respiration
Steps for Respiration
  • 1) Breathing or ventilation
    • Moving air in and out of lungs
  • 2) External respiration
    • Exchange of gases between lungs and blood vessels
  • 3) Transport of gases to cells
  • 4) Internal respiration
    • Exchange of gases between blood vessels and cells
  • 5) Cellular respiration
    • Using O2 in metabolic processes to create energy
divisions of respiratory tract
Divisions of Respiratory Tract
  • Upper respiratory tract
    • Nose
    • Nasal cavity
    • Paranasal sinuses
    • Pharynx
  • Lower respiratory tract
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchial tree
    • Lungs
slide9
Nose
  • Bone and cartilage
    • Support structure
  • Nostrils
    • Openings for entry of air
  • Nose hairs
    • Guard entrance and protect against particles
nasal cavity
Nasal Cavity
  • Hollow space behind nose
  • Nasal septum
    • Bone and cartilage structure dividing cavity into 2 sides
  • Nasal conchae
    • Projections from nasal cavity wall; increase surface area
  • Lining of nasal cavity
    • Pseudostratifiedepithelial cells with mucous-secreting goblet cells
  • Particles are trapped and moved out and air is warmed and moistened
the nose bones and cartilage support nose two openings nostrils hair filters large particles
The NOSE bones and cartilage support nose, two openings (nostrils), hair filters large particles

Nasal Cavity – hollow space behind the nose  Nasal septum – divides the nose (bone)

slide13

Nasal conchae – bones that divide the nasal cavity, support the mucus membrane and increase surface area (superior, middle, inferior)

      * deviated septum – when the septum bends to one side

slide14

Function of the conchae - increase surface area

Mucus Membrane - warms and moistens air, also traps particles (dust)

    *particles go to          stomach

Nasal Conchae

paranasal sinuses
Paranasal Sinuses
  • Air-filled sacs within skull bones
  • Reduce the weight of the skull
  • Affect sound of the voice
slide16

Paranasal Sinuses - – spaces within the  bones

  • maxillary
  • frontal
  • ethmoid
  • sphenoid

 reduce the weight of skull and are resonant chambers for voice.

pharynx
Pharynx
  • Shared with digestive system
  • Divisions:
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Larygopharynx
      • Otherwise known as

hypopharynx

  • Openings:
    • Oral cavity
    • Nasal cavity
    • Esophagus
    • Trachea
slide20

The three pharyngeal regions

Pharynx – behind the oral cavity, between the nasal cavity and larynx (space, not a structure)

larynx
Larynx
  • Enlargement at beginning of trachea
  • Framework of muscle and cartilage bound by elastic tissue
  • Largest cartilages:
    • Thyroid (Adam’s apple)
    • Cricoid
    • Epiglottic
vocal cords
Vocal Cords
  • Housed in larynx
  • False vocal cords
    • Fold of tissue that helps to close passageway when swallowing
  • True vocal cords
    • Vibrate when air is forced through causing sound
    • Tension of chords helps regulate pitch
    • Force of air helps regulate volume of sound
slide26

Larynx – enlargement at the top of the trachea and below pharynx, conducts air in and out of trachea, houses vocal cords

- composed of a framework of muscles and cartilages (thyroid (Adam’s apple), cricoids, epiglottic cartilages)

glottis
Glottis
  • Triangular opening between vocal cords
  • When swallowing:
    • False vocal cords close glottis
    • Larynx raises and presses epiglottis against opening
slide28

Glottis

- false vocal folds  (do not produce sound) – help close airway during swallowing          

- true vocal folds (produce sound) – changing shape of the pharynx, and oral cavity changes sounds into words         

  - contracting and relaxing muscles changes pitch (increased tension = higher pitch)

slide29

www.voiceinfo.org

Steven Tyler's Vocal Cords

slide31

Glottis – triangular slit that opens during breathing/talking, and closes during swallowing

Epiglottis – flaplike structure that stands upright, allows air to enter larynx, during swallowing it presses downward and prevents food from entering air passages

laryngitis
LARYNGITIS

When the mucus membrane becomes swollen and prevents the vocal cords from vibrating freely.

Trachea (windpipe), flexible cylinder with cartilage to give it stiffness and keep it from collapsing

   Trachea leads to the BRONCHIAL TREE

trachea
Trachea
  • Also called windpipe
  • Descends anterior to esophagus
  • Lining of trachea:
    • Pseudostratifiedepithelial cells with mucous-secreting goblet cells
  • Enclosed with C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to prevent tube from collapsing
bronchial tree
Bronchial Tree
  • Branching tubes connecting trachea to site of gas exchange in lungs
    • Right and left primary bronchi  Secondary bronchi  Tertiary bronchi  Bronchioles  Terminal bronchioles  Respiratory bronchioles  Alveolar ducts  Alveolar sacs  Alveoli
  • Amount of cartilage decreases through tract
  • Amount of smooth muscle in the walls increases through tract
slide35

Primary bronchii --> bronchioles --> alveolar ducts -->  sacs                                                                         -->  alveoli

                                                                      *gas exchange

alveoli
Alveoli
  • Terminal sacs at the end of the tract
  • Surrounded by network of blood capillaries
  • Site of gas exchange
  • Respiratory membrane:
    • Simple squamous epithelium in alveoli and blood capillary
    • Basement membrane fuses the two (alveoli and capillary) together
20 000 pyramid
$20,000 PYRAMID!
  • A word/phrase will be posted – person A (who is facing the board) must attempt to explain the word (without saying it!) while Person B (who is NOT facing board) will guess what the word is.
  • NO DRAWING!
  • If your partner gets them all right – with NO CHEATING – raise your hands!
  • GET READY!!!!
  • Alveoli
  • Larynx
  • Trachae
quick quiz
Quick Quiz

1.  What do you call the bones found within the nasal cavity?

2.  What specific bone divides the nasal cavity into two sides?

3.   The space at the back of the mouth is the________.

4.  The spaces within the bones of the skull are called the ______________________

5. What structure is known as the windpipe? ______

6.  What is the triangular slit that opens during breathing and talking?

7. In what structures does gas exchange occur?

8. During swallowing, this flap closes to prevent food from entering the airway: ______________________

lungs
Lungs
  • Located in thoracic cavity:
    • Mediastinum between
    • Thoracic cage surrounds
    • Diaphragm below
    • Suspended by bronchi and blood vessels
  • Cover by visceral pleura which folds back to become parietal pleura
    • Potential space between is pleural cavity
    • Small layer of serous fluid between
  • Right lung: 3 lobes
  • Left lung: 2 lobes
slide45

Right Lung          = 3 lobes

Left Lung           = 2 lobes

Serous fluid lubricates lungs during breathing

exhalation
EXHALATION

As the diaphragm and other muscles relax, ELASTIC RECOIL from surface tension forces air out.  

Muscles can force extra air out or in

inspiration
Inspiration
  • At rest, pressure of air and thoracic cavity are the same;
    • NO net movement of air
  • Pressure must be decreased in thoracic cavity for air to move in
  • Diaphragm is contracted (lowered) and external (inspiratory) intercostal muscles contract as well
  • Contractions increase cavity volume which decreases pressure
inspiration cont
Inspiration (cont)
  • Muscle movements pull on the pleural membranes to expand the lung
  • Surface tension
    • Difficulty in expanding alveoli because the walls tend to stick together
    • Surfactanthelps combat surface tension
  • Deeper breaths can be taken by contracting muscle more forcefully or by involving other muscles
expiration
Expiration
  • Normally passive process
  • Contracting muscles relax
  • Elastic recoil and surface tension cause tissue to return to previous state before inspiration
  • Pressure increases in cavity and forces air out of lungs
expiration cont
Expiration (cont)
  • More air can be expelled if:
    • Internal (expiratory) intercostal muscle contract  Pushes rib cage in (raising thoracic pressure even more)
    • Abdominal muscles contract  raising abdominal pressure  pushing diaphragm higher  raising thoracic pressure even more
  • Respiration animation
respiratory air volumes
Respiratory Air Volumes

Spirometry - measures the amount (volume) of air moving in and out of the lungs

Respiratory Cycle - 1 inspiration and 1 expiration

atmospheric pressure 760 hg
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 760 Hg

Pressure is necessary for breathing, which is why it is difficult to breathe in high altitudes and also why a punctured lung can be dangerous.

A hole in the pleural cavity can cause the lung to collapse or deflate

Pneumothorax = collapsed lung:  See Video

slide56

Also check out this procedure where  fluid is drained from the lungs - not for those with a weak stomach!

labeling practice
Labeling Practice
  • 1) By YOURSELF– using no notes, text – label the respiratory system diagram
      • 1 minute time – GO!
  • 2) Switch with someoneat your desk
  • 3) Grade the diagram – you may use notes, text
      • 1 minute – GO!
  • 4) Take a look at diagramkey – make any changes!
slide60

Resting Tidal Volume  -  amount of air that enters the lungs during one cycle

*take a normal breath

Reserve volumes - air that can be forced out or in

*inhale normally, pause, and try to inhale more - that is your reserve inspiratory volume

*exhale, then exhale a little more

slide61
VITAL CAPACITY = Insp reserve + Exp reserve + Tidal Volume

INSPIRATORY CAPACITY = Tidal Volume + Insp Reserve Volume

FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL  CAPACITY  is the volume of air that remains in the lungs at rest

TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY varies by sex, age, body size, athletics

air volumes
Air Volumes
  • Four Respiratory Volumes
    • 1) Tidal Volume
      • Amount of air moved during one respiratory cycle (resting tidal volume about 500ml)
    • 2) Inspiratoryreserve volume
      • Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled over tidal volume (about 3,000ml)
    • 3) Expiratory reserve volume
      • Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled over tidal volume (about 1,100ml)
    • 4) Residual volume
      • Amount of air left in lungs after the most forceful expiration (about 1,200ml)
air capacities
Air Capacities
  • Four respiratory capacities:
    • 1) Vital Capacity
      • Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after deepest breath (about 4,600ml)
    • 2) Inspiratory capacity
      • Amount of air that can be inspired after a resting expiration (about 3,500ml)
    • 3) Functional residual capacity
      • Volume of air in lungs after resting expiration (about 2,300ml)
    • 4) Total lung capacity
      • Total amount of air that lung can hold (about 5,800ml)
air volumes and capacities cont
Air Volumes and Capacities (cont)
  • Some volumes and capacities can change with age, sex, body size, and health
  • Anatomical dead space:
    • Air that fills passageways to alveoli;
    • No gas exchange occurs
    • About 150ml
slide68

Breathing is involuntary, but muscles are under voluntary control

Respiratory Center – groups of neurons in the brain that control inspiration and expiration

(based in the medulla and the pons)

slide69

Factors Affecting Breathing

*Chemosensitive areas – detect concentrations of chemicals like carbon dioxide and hydrogen

1. Rise in CO2 2. Low blood oxygen (peripheral chemoreceptors, carotid and aortic bodies, sense changes)3. Inflation reflex – regulates the depth of breathing, prevents overinflation of the lungs4. Emotional upset, fear and pain

hyperventilation increase breathing lower co2 concentration
Hyperventilation - increase breathing, lower CO2 concentration

Breathing into a bag can restore CO2 concentrations

control of breathing
Control of Breathing
  • Respiratory center of brainstem controls both inspiration and expiration
  • Medullaryrhythmicity area
    • Dorsal respiratory group- emit bursts that cause muscles of inspiration to contract; impulse starts slow and builds; no impulse during expiration
    • Ventral respiratory group - impulse increase inspiratory movements and forceful expiratory movements needed during deeper breathing
  • Pneumotaxic area of pons
    • Controls dorsal respiratory group by inhibiting impulses; as inhibition increases breathing rate increases
factors affecting breathing
Factors Affecting Breathing
  • Chemosensitive area within respiratory center
    • Senses changes to CO2 and H+ levels;
    • Increase breathing rate and tidal volume if high
  • Peripheral chemoreceptorsin carotid and aortic bodies
    • Sense changes in O2 levels;
    • Increase breathing rate if levels are extremely low
factors affecting breathing cont
Factors Affecting Breathing (cont)
  • Inflation reflex
    • Stimulates pneumotaxic area to inhibit inspiration if tissues in visceral pleura, bronchioles, or alveoli are being overstretched
  • Fear and pain
    • Increase breathing rate
  • Breathing can be voluntary
    • Body will override if breath is held to long
  • Hyperventilation
    • Lowers levels of CO2 in blood; allows for breath to be held longer before levels raise again; can make O2 levels low enough to cause fainting
diffusion at the respiratory membrane
Diffusion at the Respiratory Membrane
  • Partial pressure of gases determine direction of movement
  • Air in alveoli
    • PCO2 = 40 mm Hg
    • PO2 = 104 mm Hg
  • Blood entering capillary
    • PCO2 = 45 mm Hg
    • PO2 = 40 mm Hg
  • Blood leaving capillary - same as alveoli
  • Opposite exchange occurs between the capillaries and tissue
oxygen transport
Oxygen Transport
  • Over 98% of O2 attaches to heme group of hemoglobin in red blood cells to form oxyhemoglobin
  • Remaining dissolves in blood
  • Hemoglobin releases O2when:
    • PO2 is low
    • PCO2 is high
    • pH is acidic
    • Temperature is higher
carbon dioxide transport
Carbon Dioxide Transport
  • About 7% can be transported as CO2 dissolved in the blood
  • 23% is carried by amine group of hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin
    • Releases when PCO2is low
  • Remaining is carried as bicarbonate ion
bicarbonate ion
Bicarbonate Ion
  • Reaction uses enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, in RBC’s
  • Reaction:
    • CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-
  • Formation of bicarbonate ion can create excess H+ and create acidic pH;
    • H+ is combined with hemoglobin to minimize this effect
  • Gas Exchange Animation
respiratory disorders
Respiratory Disorders
  • Emphysema
    • Progressive, degenerative disease
    • Destroys alveolar walls
    • Results in air sacs merge to form larger chambers (decreases surface area  reduces volume of gases that can be exchanged)
    • Person has trouble breathing
    • Causes:
      • Exposure to respiratory irritants (tobacco smoke, polluted air)
      • Inherited enzyme deficiency

Emphysema TV ad

respiratory disorders1
Respiratory Disorders
  • Lung Cancer
    • Like all other cancers, uncontrolled division of abnormal cells (rob other cells of their nutrients and gases)
    • Cancer cells divide often to form tumors
      • Can block airways and reduce gas exchange
    • Causes:
      • Exposure to respiratory irritants (tobacco smoke, polluted air)
    • Treated with chemotherapy, surgery
    • Survival rate is low 
slide85

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a long-lasting obstruction of the airways that occurs with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or both. This obstruction of airflow is progressive in that it happens over time.

slide89

Bronchitis is inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs. Bronchitis may be short-lived (acute) or chronic, meaning that it lasts a long time and often recurs.

slide90

Respiratory Membrane – alveoli and blood stream exchange gasses

Gas exchange occurs across a membrane - a layer of simple squamous cells

Oxygen DIFFUSES into the bloodstream

Other substances (like alcohol can diffuse too)

slide91

Hypoxia is a disease in which there is an overall lack of oxygen content within the body's tissue and vital human organs (specifically the brain).

Hypoxia has several potential causes, including: cardiac arrest, severe head trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, suffocation, strangulation, and choking, as well as any instance in which oxygen supply is deprived from the body.

Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from being unable to breathe normally.

An example of asphyxia is choking. Asphyxia causes generalized hypoxia, which primarily affects the tissues and organs.

slide92

ILLNESSES RELATED TO THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

1. Cystic Fibrosis (genetic)2. Asthma3. Bronchitis4. Apnea5. Emphysema6. Lung Cancer7. Altitude Sickness8. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)9. Sinusitis10. Bacterial or Viral Infections (cold, flu, pneumonia)

what is sleep apnea
What is sleep apnea?

Pause or slowing of breathing during sleep

Video on Sleep Apnea

lung cancer
Lung Cancer

Lung cancer starts when abnormal cells grow out of control in the lungs. Lung cancer and smoking often, but not always, go hand in hand. There usually are no signs or early symptoms of lung cancer. As lung cancer stages advance, lung cancer symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and bloody mucus. Treatment for lung cancer can include surgery, chemotherapy, and /or radiation.

altitude sickness
ALTITUDE SICKNESS

Acute mountain sickness is brought on by the combination of reduced air pressure and lower oxygen concentration that occur at high altitudes. Symptoms can range from mild to life-threatening, and can affect the nervous system, lungs, muscles, and heart.

Pulmonary edema is an abnormal build up of fluid in the air sacs of the lungs, which leads to shortness of breath

non respiratory movements
NON RESPIRATORY MOVEMENTS

Coughing, sneezing, laughing, crying

Hiccup - spasm of the diaphragm

Yawn - possibly causes by low oxygen levels

respiratory fun sounds
Respiratory Fun sounds!
  • Cough:
    • Take a deep breath, closes glottis, forces air upward from lungs against closed glottis  glottis opens suddenly, blast of air forced upward
  • Sneeze:
    • Like a cough
    • Clears upper respiratory passages rather than lower ones
    • Initiated by mild irritation in nasal cavity
respiratory fun sounds1
Respiratory Fun sounds!
  • Hiccup:
    • Caused by sudden inspiration due to a spasmodic contraction of a diaphragm
    • Air strikes vocal folds causing hiccup sound
  • Yawning:
    • Aid respiration by providing an occasional deep breath