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PRC State Ideologies. from Marxism to “3 Represents”. Political Ideology. A systematic set of ideas explanation of political phenomena criteria and standards of evaluation social and cultural orientation to define and affirm individual and collective identity program of political action

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prc state ideologies

PRC State Ideologies

from Marxism to “3 Represents”

political ideology
Political Ideology
  • A systematic set of ideas
  • explanation of political phenomena
  • criteria and standards of evaluation
  • social and cultural orientation to define and affirm individual and collective identity
  • program of political action
    • Lenin: “What is to be done?”
pillars of communist regimes
Pillars of Communist Regimes
  • Marxist ideology
    • Karl Marx (1818 - 1883)
  • Communist Party
    • Lenin (1870 - 1924)
  • command economy
    • Stalin (1879 - 1953)
  • Dialectics
    • contradictions and class struggle
  • Materialism
    • productive forces, economic structure, and superstructure
  • in time proletariat will be emancipated from capitalist exploitation through an international revolution
  • Marxist revolution can happen
    • in one country
    • before industrialization
    • before capitalist democracy
  • Bolshevik party
    • highly disciplined
    • hierarchical organization
    • of professional revolutionaries
mao zedong thought
Mao Zedong Thought
  • practical politics and inconsistency
  • continuous revolution in a backward agrarian society of half a billion peasants
  • the “red” versus “expertise” debate
    • revolutionary change
    • smooth administration
      • technical expertise
  • ultimate goal of making China strong
mao zedong thought8
Mao Zedong Thought
  • attacked traditional Chinese culture
    • especially the network of relationships
    • replaced with class identity, nationalism, and new loyalty
  • incorporated traditional elements
    • ideological indoctrination
    • Mao’s monopoly on determining what would constitute correct ideology for China
  • properly motivated people could overcome virtually any material odds to accomplish their goals
  • contradicts Marxist materialism
  • e.g. the “Great Leap Forward”
    • 1958 - 1960
mass line
Mass Line
  • A leadership doctrine developed in 1940s
  • vanguard role of the party
    • dictatorial leadership
  • strong participatory role for the populace
    • before decision making
    • during implementation of policy initiatives
  • “from the masses to the masses”
  • intended to avoid losing touch with masses
mass campaigns
Mass Campaigns
  • concentrated attacks on specific issues
    • through mass mobilization of the populace
  • social or political transformation
  • economic development
  • e.g. Suppression of Counterrevolutionaries (1951)
  • e.g. Great Leap Forward (1958 – 1960)
  • e.g. Cultural Revolution (1966 – 1976)
  • directly contradict Confucian ideal of “harmony”
  • bad class labels:
    • landlords
    • capitalists
    • rich farmers
  • violence
  • frugal living
  • Confucius: “those who head a state do not worry about scarcity but about inequality”
anti intellectualism
  • In Mao’s view, intellectuals
    • embodied the traditional culture
    • lost touch with the masses
    • used technical expertise to counter revolutionary enthusiasm
    • reinforced social inequality
  • repression of intellectuals cost China a generation of highly trained specialists
united front
United Front
  • “unite with all who can be united”
    • united with Chiang Kai-shek to fight Japanese in 1930s
    • united with “democratic parties” to fight Chiang Kai-shek in late 1940s
class struggle
Class Struggle
  • Mao’s unorthodox interpretations of Marxist class concepts
  • class labels were assigned in 1950s
    • carried by every resident until after Mao died
  • class status could be determined by political attitude
    • e.g. “capitalist-roaders” during the C.R.
  • class status could be hereditary
self reliance
  • Mao: “keep the initiative in one’s own hand”
    • whether a community could sustain itself even in adverse circumstances
  • the sudden withdrawal of Soviet aid in 1958
  • Maoist China strived to minimize its dependence on any single foreign country
current prc constitution
Current PRC Constitution
  • “Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China
  • “and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of ‘Three Represents’
  • “the Chinese people …”
deng xiaoping theory
“Deng Xiaoping Theory”
  • “emancipate minds
  • “and seek truth from facts”
  • “It doesn’t matter whether the cat is black or white as long as it catches mice”
  • “cross the river by groping for stones”
jiang zemin s 3 represents
Jiang Zemin’s “3 Represents”
  • “the Communist Party represents
  • “the development requirements of China's advanced social productive forces
3 represents ii
“3 Represents”: II
  • “the progressive course of China's advanced culture
3 represents iii
“3 Represents”: III
  • “and the fundamental interests of the majority of the Chinese people”