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Chapter 3

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  1. Chapter 3 • A. Gene function • Genes and protein synthesis and mutation • B. Genetic diseases • Identification of genes • Pedigrees/DNA markers • Diseases (CF, PKU, Albinism, • Huntington Disease, DMD) • C. Use/Misuse of genetic information • Genetic tests • Prenatal testing • PCR (polymnerase chain reaction) • Eugenics (positive/negative)

  2. Chapter 4 • Genetic engineering Restriction enzymes/plasmids Genetically engineered insulin Gene therapy • Use of Genetic information • Human Genome Genomics/Bioinformatics

  3. Chapter 4 • Genetic engineering Restriction enzymes • Used to cut DNA at special sequences • e.g EcoR1 cuts at ---GAATTC--- • ---CTTAAG--- • palindrome -race car-

  4. Chapter 4 • Genetic engineering Restriction enzymes • Used to cut DNA at special sequences • e.g EcoR1 cuts at ---GAATTC--- • ---CTTAAG--- • palindrome -race car-

  5. Chapter 4 • Genetic engineering Restriction enzymes • Used to cut DNA at special sequences • e.g EcoR1 cuts at ---GAATTC--- • ---CTTAAG--- • palindrome -race car-

  6. Chapter 4 • Genetic engineering Restriction enzymes • Used to cut DNA at special sequences • e.g EcoR1 cuts at ---GAATTC--- • ---CTTAAG--- • palindrome -race car-

  7. fig. 4-1

  8. fig. 4-2 Plasmid circular piece of non-chromosomal DNA

  9. fig. 4-3

  10. Have bacteria produce a product that the body can’t make.

  11. Gene Therapy Put good gene into someone who doesn’t have it SCIDS bubble babies

  12. fig. 4-4

  13. Gene Therapy: • Is it possible? • Is it right (ethical)?

  14. Who dun it?

  15. fig. 4-5

  16. fig. 4-6

  17. Chapter 4 • Genetic engineering Restriction enzymes/plasmids Genetically engineered insulin Gene therapy • Use of Genetic information • Human Genome Genomics/Bioinformatics

  18. Sequencing DNA • if interested…see fig 4.7

  19. fig. 4-8

  20. Genome complete genetic material of an organism Human Genome project: Proposed in 1986 Funded in 1989 Preliminary report in 2001 (94%) Completed in 2003

  21. Genome results • 95% of human DNA is non-coding (not genes) • Fewer genes found than expected (35,000) • Many genes have unknown • Only 1% of our genes are unique (similar to 46% of genes in yeast) • 200 genes like bacteria • mutation rates differ in different parts of genome • Many sites (15) for variability (each individual is genetically unique) 23 = 23 = 8 223 = 8,388,608 223 = 2n

  22. study of the genome Genomics e.g., identify individual genes information generated is called bioinformatics uses molecular biology and computer science • 95% of human DNA is non-coding • introns (non-coding) and exons (coding) • see figs 4.9 and 4.10

  23. comparative and functional Genomics • similarities and relationships • simple vs. complex • gene families • gene functions • …… study the protein content of an organism Proteomics Normal function Disease processes Repair/drug interaction…..

  24. Chapter 1 • A. Properties of living things • list them and relate them to further materials • B. Scientific Method • subject matter and limitations • inductive vs. deductive reasoning • (specific to general) (general to specific; if…then) • Hypothesis: must be testable (falsifiable) • Experiments/observations test hypothesis • must be reproducible • must have appropriate controls

  25. B. Scientific Method (cont) Ethics: deontological: written code, individual rights emphasis on actions (right vs wrong) utilitarian: greatest good for most emphasis onconsequences

  26. 0 Genes, Chromosomes and DNA Mendel and Peas simple inheritance patterns phenotype/genotype, dominant recessive heterozygous/homozygous, Mendels “laws” B. Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Chromosomes Cell division: mitosis and meiosis Gene linkage, crossing over, nondisjunction Molecular basis of Inheritance DNA structure and replication

  27. Chapter 3 • A. Gene function • Genes and protein synthesis and mutation • (diagram) • B. Genetic diseases • Identification of genes • Pedigrees/DNA markers • Diseases (PKU, Albinism, CF, • Huntington Disease, DMD) • C. Use/Misuse of genetic information • Genetic tests • Prenatal testing • PCR (polymnerase chain reaction) • Eugenics (positive/negative)

  28. How proteins are made (protein synthesis): tRNA RNA Polymerase ribosomes (protein, rRNA) DNA mRNA protein 4 "letters” 4 "letters” 20 "letters" transcriptiontranslation (in nucleus) (in cytoplasm)

  29. Chapter 4 • Genetic engineering Restriction enzymes/plasmids Genetically engineered insulin Gene therapy • Use of Genetic information • Human Genome Genomics/Bioinformatics