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Chapter 3. Intercultural Communication. Chapter 3. Increasing Importance of Intercultural Communication Globalization of markets Technological advancements Global connectivity Intercultural workforce. Chapter 3. Globalization of Markets

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Chapter 3


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    1. Chapter 3 Intercultural Communication

    2. Chapter 3 • Increasing Importance of Intercultural Communication • Globalization of markets • Technological advancements • Global connectivity • Intercultural workforce

    3. Chapter 3 • Globalization of Markets • Mergers, acquisitions, buy-outs stir growth beyond national boundaries • Anheuser-Busch • Chrysler Corporation • American companies in global markets must adapt to other cultures • New trade agreements, declining domestic markets drive global markets

    4. Chapter 3 • Technological Advancements and Global Interconnectivity • Development of new transportation and information technologies fuel explosive growth in global markets • Internet and Web—changing the way we live, communicate, and do business

    5. Chapter 3 • Expanding Intercultural Workforce • Immigration makes intercultural communication increasingly necessary • Business communicators must learn to adapt to an intercultural workforce and multinational companies

    6. Chapter 3 • Characteristics of Culture • Culture is learned • Cultures are inherently logical • Culture is the basis of self-identity and community • Culture combines the visible and invisible • Culture is dynamic

    7. Chapter 3 • Dimensions of Culture • Context • Individualism • Formality • Communication style • Time orientation

    8. Chapter 3 • Context • Low-context cultures tend to be logical, linear, and action-oriented • High-context cultures tend to be relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative

    9. Chapter 3 • Individualism • High-context cultures tend to prefer group values, duties, and decisions • Low-context cultures tend to prefer individual initiative, self-assertion, and personal achievement

    10. Chapter 3 • Formality • Some cultures may prefer greater formality in dress, speech, and social interaction • North Americans place less emphasis on tradition, ceremony, and social rules

    11. Chapter 3 • Communication Style • High-context cultures rely on nonverbal cues and the total picture to communicate • Meanings are embedded at many sociocultural levels • Low-context cultures emphasize words, directness, and openness • People tend to be informal, impatient, and literal

    12. Chapter 3 • Time Orientation • Time is precious to North Americans • Time correlates with productivity, efficiency, and money • Time is seen as unlimited and never-ending in some cultures • South Americans have a more relaxed concept of time

    13. Chapter 3 • High- to low-context cultures • Japanese • Arab • Latin American • Spanish • English • Italian • French • North American • Scandinavian • German • Swiss

    14. Chapter 3 • How We Form Judgments • An oversimplified behavioral pattern applied uncritically to groups • A mental representation based on characteristics that are flexible and open to new definitions • A rigid attitude based on erroneous beliefs or preconceptions

    15. Chapter 3 • Techniques to Broaden Your Intercultural Competence • Descriptiveness—giving descriptive feedback instead of judgmental feedback • Nonjudgmentalism—being tolerant, which helps prevent defensive reactions • Supportiveness—encouraging others with head nods, eye contact, and facial expressions

    16. Chapter 3 • Intercultural proficiency. . . • Requires a conscious effort • Leads to more satisfying relationships • Makes work life more productive, gratifying, and effective • Reduces ethnocentric reactions

    17. Chapter 3 • Techniques for Bridging the Gap Between Cultures • Tolerance—being open-minded and empathetic • Helping others save face—raising their social standing through positive comments • Patience—letting others express their thoughts without finishing their sentences for them

    18. Chapter 3 • Improving Oral Communication with Intercultural Audiences • Learn foreign phrases • Use simple English • Speak slowly and enunciate clearly • Observe eye messages • Encourage accurate feedback • Check frequently for comprehension • Accept blame • Listen without interrupting • Smile when appropriate • Follow up in writing

    19. Chapter 3 • Improving Your Written Communication with Intercultural Audiences • Consider local styles • Observe titles and rank • Use short sentences and short paragraphs • Avoid ambiguous expressions • Strive for clarity • Use correct grammar • Cite numbers carefully • Accommodate readers in organization, tone, and style

    20. Chapter 3 • How to Make Ethical Decisions • Broaden your view of other cultures • Avoid reflex judgments • Find alternatives • Refuse business if options violate your basic values • Embrace transparency • Don’t rationalize shady decisions • Resist legalistic strategies

    21. Chapter 3 • Tips for Improving Communication Among Diverse Workplace Audiences • Seek training • Understand the value of differences • Don’t expect conformity • Learn about your cultural self • Make fewer assumptions • Build on similarities