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 Summary: Native Americans. Regions of U.S.A: 1. East —West of the Appalachian mountains as Indian country (1763). 2. South —Trail of Tears or Trail Where They Cried—journey from Georgia to Oklahoma (1830s). Scores of Cherokee Indians died. Cherokee Rose as a symbol in Georgia.

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summary native americans
 Summary: Native Americans

Regions of U.S.A:

1.East—West of the Appalachian mountains as Indian country (1763).

2.South—Trail of Tears or Trail Where They Cried—journey from Georgia to Oklahoma (1830s). Scores of Cherokee Indians died. Cherokee Rose as a symbol in Georgia.

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3. Rocky Mountain—Battle of Little Bighorn—Montana (1860s). . General Custer’s soldiers were defeated by Sioux leader, Crazy Horse --Indian victory. P. 174-175

4. Midwest—A. Wounded Knee village (Pine Ridge Reservation) South Dakota (1607-1890). Scores of Indians died. Sociological implication: ethnic stratification (cleansing). Ghost dance as a ritual, i.e., religion. Dancers arrested by Anglos; and Indians considered the act as ending their traditional way of life.

B. Ghost Dance—social scientists call a millenarianmovement—cataclysmic upheaval--

C. Massacre of Dakota Indians in Mankato, Minnesota (1860s). D. Plains wars—“Horse-Buffalo complex” are traits, e.g., dancing and singing.

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5. West—Alcatraz Island, California (1969-1971), “Indians of all tribes” seized the island. Wanted to preserve it as a cultural center. Failed but demonstrated Indian self-determination.

6. Alaska—federal government refused to recognize Alaskan Indians as having official tribal status.

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Legislations:

1. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831). Ruling: Chief Justice, Marshall argued that Indian tribes are sovereign nations (Independent) but placed limits on their sovereignty.

2. Worcester v. Georgia (1832). Ruling: the Cherokee nation though not independent country was not under the control of the state of Georgia. Indian victory in this case.

3. The Indian Removal Act of 1830: despite the victory in the Worcester case, President Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) ordered General Scott to move Indians west of Mississippi.

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4. In 1824, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was created to administer funds for the “civilization” of Indians. Boarding schools built, e.g., Carlisle School, to Americanize Indians.

5. Appropriations Act of 1871 ended the Treaty-making with the Indians.

6. Dawes Act of 1887(Henry L. Dawes, Senator, Massachusetts). Provisions of Act: 1st, give land to Indians, the General Allotment tried to eliminate tribal land bases and make individual Indians on Reservations into land owning farmers and ranchers. 2nd, Introduce Anglo conformity—civilize Indians.

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7. Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act in 1924—made Indians as U.S. citizens.

8. Meriam Report: famous report that documented that few Indians became self-sufficient farmers, as a result, of Dawes Act, therefore it failed.

9. Indian Reorganization Act or Wheeler-Howard Act of 1934 (Senator, Burton K. Wheeler, Montana) replaced Dawes Act of 1887. Provisions: 1st, Indians are best governed by themselves; and 2nd, introduce Cultural Pluralism, i.e., replace Anglo conformity.

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10. The Termination Policy (1953-1961): Provisions: 1st, government to get “out of the Indian business.” A. President Eisenhower Termination policy took land from the Indians which was needed for their independence. B. President Lyndon B. Johnson passed the Indian Civil Rights in 1968. C. President Nixon attacked the idea that the federal government had the right to terminate unilaterally its special relationship with Indians. D. Sociological implication of termination policy: the federal government rejected the Anglo conformity policy and allow cultural pluralism.
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Social Movements: Indians

1. Pan-Indian Responses: uniting the different Indian tribes to fight for their rights is Pan-Indianism.

2. Society for American Indians (SAI): Purpose: 1st, to promote Indian advancement and 2nd, to abolish the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

3. National Congress of American Indians formed in 1944. Purpose: to help all Indians especially the veterans.

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4. the New tribalism, Tribal nationalism, or Red power movement began in the 1960s among Indian university students. Purpose: to promote tribal land claims, e.g., water rights, religious rights etc.

5. American Indian Movement (AIM) is one of the most militant Indian organizations. Purpose: 1st, to protest violations of the Sioux Treaty of 1868, and 2nd seized Wounded Knee village for 70 days.

6. Games of chance: Indians turned to gaming as a source of income. Gaming business is called “new buffalo economy.”

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7. Immigrant or colonized minority? 1st, Indians entered the American society as a conquered group like the Mexican Americans. The struggles of Indians is the reverse of nearly all other American ethnic groups, i.e., started sovereign nation, and ended as conquered; and 2nd, BIA in 1952 relocation program encouraged Indians to move to cities—urbanization. The relocation of some Indians from the reservations to urban areas weakened their ties to the cultures of the reservations.