Summary: Native Americans. Regions of U.S.A: 1. East —West of the Appalachian mountains as Indian country (1763). 2. South —Trail of Tears or Trail Where They Cried—journey from Georgia to Oklahoma (1830s). Scores of Cherokee Indians died. Cherokee Rose as a symbol in Georgia.
Regions of U.S.A:
1.East—West of the Appalachian mountains as Indian country (1763).
2.South—Trail of Tears or Trail Where They Cried—journey from Georgia to Oklahoma (1830s). Scores of Cherokee Indians died. Cherokee Rose as a symbol in Georgia.
4. Midwest—A. Wounded Knee village (Pine Ridge Reservation) South Dakota (1607-1890). Scores of Indians died. Sociological implication: ethnic stratification (cleansing). Ghost dance as a ritual, i.e., religion. Dancers arrested by Anglos; and Indians considered the act as ending their traditional way of life.
B. Ghost Dance—social scientists call a millenarianmovement—cataclysmic upheaval--
C. Massacre of Dakota Indians in Mankato, Minnesota (1860s). D. Plains wars—“Horse-Buffalo complex” are traits, e.g., dancing and singing.
6. Alaska—federal government refused to recognize Alaskan Indians as having official tribal status.
1. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831). Ruling: Chief Justice, Marshall argued that Indian tribes are sovereign nations (Independent) but placed limits on their sovereignty.
2. Worcester v. Georgia (1832). Ruling: the Cherokee nation though not independent country was not under the control of the state of Georgia. Indian victory in this case.
3. The Indian Removal Act of 1830: despite the victory in the Worcester case, President Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) ordered General Scott to move Indians west of Mississippi.
5. Appropriations Act of 1871 ended the Treaty-making with the Indians.
6. Dawes Act of 1887(Henry L. Dawes, Senator, Massachusetts). Provisions of Act: 1st, give land to Indians, the General Allotment tried to eliminate tribal land bases and make individual Indians on Reservations into land owning farmers and ranchers. 2nd, Introduce Anglo conformity—civilize Indians.
8. Meriam Report: famous report that documented that few Indians became self-sufficient farmers, as a result, of Dawes Act, therefore it failed.
9. Indian Reorganization Act or Wheeler-Howard Act of 1934 (Senator, Burton K. Wheeler, Montana) replaced Dawes Act of 1887. Provisions: 1st, Indians are best governed by themselves; and 2nd, introduce Cultural Pluralism, i.e., replace Anglo conformity.
1. Pan-Indian Responses: uniting the different Indian tribes to fight for their rights is Pan-Indianism.
2. Society for American Indians (SAI): Purpose: 1st, to promote Indian advancement and 2nd, to abolish the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
3. National Congress of American Indians formed in 1944. Purpose: to help all Indians especially the veterans.
5. American Indian Movement (AIM) is one of the most militant Indian organizations. Purpose: 1st, to protest violations of the Sioux Treaty of 1868, and 2nd seized Wounded Knee village for 70 days.
6. Games of chance: Indians turned to gaming as a source of income. Gaming business is called “new buffalo economy.”