What is a Monarchy? • a form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual (the monarch), who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication, based often on hereditary • Around 1450, Europe saw a rise of new monarchsskilled in diplomacy and control over their realms • Occurred in response to a decline in the power of the Church and nobles
Characteristics of the New Monarchies: 14th--16th centuries • Make law and enact order. • Often limited the power of the nobility by enlisting the support of the middle class in the towns • Monarchs rewarded middle class for their service and loyalty to the crown • Utilized taxation to run countrytarget nobility to check power • Tamed the aristocracynew nobles based on official capacity “nobles of the robe” • Controlled all warfare • Religious control over the clergy
New National Armies • Monarchs no longer relied on nobility to raise troopshired mercenary soldiers • Armies became “professional,”fought for pay and spoils rather than honor • Cavalry (nobles)was less importantinfantry and artillery was the focus • Large armies created a greater need for taxes
The Rise of New Monarchies • As a group read your sections per your country. • On the posterboard, highlight the steps that occurred in the consolidation of power • Identify any laws/institutions created to control the nobles by the monarch
England • Defeat from Hundred Years War led to economic hardship and power struggle for monarchy • The War of the Roses erupted in the 1450s between House of Lancaster and House of York • Henry Tudor (VII) defeated Richard III and established the Tudor dynasty • Established the Star Chamber—a court to control the nobles; no jury and torture was common.
Tudors Gain Power • Ended livery (personal symbols of loyalty to a lord) and maintenance (payment of soldiers for a private army) • Ended the private armies of the nobles • Henry VIII took control of the Catholic Church and took confiscated its lands.
France • After the war, economically devastated, farmland destroyed, lives lost, but national UNITY!! • Nationalism and strong monarchy • Valois family reduced power of nobility by use of taille (tax on land and property) • King Charles VII took power away from Estates-General and secured power over Church
King Louis XI (“the spider”) used the army to defeat the Duke of Burgandy • King Louis XI imposed the taille—tax on property—to keep the nobles in line and gabelle—gov’t salt mononpoly • Secured annual revenue for the gov’t • Francis I, a Renaissance king, gained control of the French clergy by an agreement with the pope—Concordat of Bologna
Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain The Madonna of the Monarchs
Spain • 1469—marriage of Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon united two dynasties under the Hapsburg family • Did not create a unified nation • together secured borders, ventured abroad militarily, Christianized Spain • Strengthened royal authority and army
Created hermandades (political units) to control the aristocracy • Completed reconquista of lands held by Muslims/Moors • Inquisition—monitored the political and religious atmosphere of Spain • 1492 expelled Jews • Promoted voyages of exploration • King Charles I will inherit throne of HRE and will became most powerful monarch in Europe
HRE: Germany and Italy • Holy Roman Empire: Germany & Italy exceptions to 15th-c. centralizing trend • the many (princes) fought off the one (emperor) • divided into some 300 autonomous entities
Germany • 1356 Golden Bull between Emperor Charles IV & major territorial rulers: established seven-member electoral college; elected emperor & provided some trans-regional unity; • Emperor’s power severely limited by Reichstag—legislative body of German states
Russia • Yaroslav the Wise developed Kiev as a cultural/political center; established contacts w/ the West • Social division: Freeman [clergy, army, boyars (landowners), townspeople, peasants] and slaves (prisoners of war and debtors)
1223 Russia fell to Ghengis Khan and the Mongols (Golden Horde) • Mongols dominated Russian society and politics • 1380 Grand Duke Dimitri of Moscow defeated the Mongol force
Ivan III or “the Great” (r. 1442—1505) • Ended Mongol domination over Russia in 1480 • Began modernization of Russia by importing many Greek scholars, craftsmen, architects, and artists • Moscow called the “Third Rome”
Revival of Monarchy • after 1450, divided feudal monarchies unified national monarchies • rise of towns, alliance of growing business classes with kings—broke bonds of feudal society • the sovereign state: powers of taxation, war making, law enforcement no longer reside with semiautonomous vassals, but with monarch & royal agents; taxes, wars, laws become national rather than regional matters
Revival of Monarchy (cont.) • France: two cornerstones of 15th-c. nation-building: • collapse of English Empire in France after Hundred Years’ War, 1453 • defeat of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, 1477—perhaps strongest political power in Europe at the time • Charles VII (r. 1422–1461), Louis XI (r. 1461–1483)—doubled territory • Spain: 1469 marriage of Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragon • brought Spanish church under state control, ended toleration of Jews & Muslims • sponsored Christopher Columbus, leading to Spanish Empire in Mexico & Peru, helping make Spain the dominant European power in 16th c.
Revival of Monarchy (cont.) • England • turmoil of Wars of the Roses, 1455–1485 (Lancaster vs. York) • 1485 Battle of Bosworth Field seats Henry VII, first Tudor monarch • Henry brings nobles to heal with special royal court, the Star Chamber
The New Dynasties of Power England stability under the Tudors France consolidation of power by the Valois. Spain unification by marriage into the Habsburgs HR Empire different model: the cost of decentralization.
Revival of Monarchy in N. Europe • Summarize the strategies of centralization by monarchs. • Prepare summaries of each country’s challenges, responses, and results.