First things first… • What is an Absolute Monarchy? Absolute = All Powerful Monarch = King or Queen Absolute Monarch= An all-powerful king or queen Also, kings and queens handed their power down to their children. It was a line of succession that stayed in the family
Characteristics of Absolute Monarchs It’s GREAT to be the King! “I am the state” • They made all the laws • They were NOT subject to the laws.
They Ruled by “Divine Right” • They believed that they derived their right to rule directly from GOD. • Accountable only to GOD. • Not the people!
Accumulated Vast Sums of Wealth • How…? • By seizing new territories in the New World and the Far East • Expanding trade overseas and within Europe • Taxing the growing wealth of their people
They used their wealth to build LARGE, PERMANENT ARMIES! • No more need to depend on feudal contracts with their vassals • These armies were loyal to the King, NOT to the Country!
NOW WHAT??? They used these armies to wage war against each other of course!
Spain • Philip II • Married Mary Tudor • Hardworking, devout and ambitious • Absolute ruler: • Complete authority over the gov’t and the lives of the people • Divine right: believed his authority to rule came directly from God
Phillip II • Guardian of the Catholic Church • Turn back rising Protestants • Turned Inquisition a/g Protestants and heretics
Phillip II • Many wars to advance power • a/g Ottomans • Rebels in the Netherlands • Northern provinces of Netherlands declared their independence from Spain
Phillip II • Armada sails a/g England • Elizabeth I: Enemy #1 • Supported the Dutch a/g Spain • Prepared a huge armada (fleet) to invade- outmaneuvered by English ships
France Wars of religion • Catholic majority vs. Huguenots (Protestants) • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre • Royal wedding; massacre of 3,000 Huguenots
Henry IV (of Navarre) • Huguenot prince; inherited throne • Eventually converted to Catholicism • Edict of Nantes: • Religious toleration for Huguenots
Cardinal Richelieu • Henry IV killed by an assassin • Richelieu appointed as chief minister • Destroy power of Huguenots & nobles • Hand-picked his successor
Louis XIV • The Fronde • Nobles, merchants, peasants & urban poor re belled to protest royal power & preserve their own • Rioters drove the boy king from his palace • Resolved to take complete control over the government
Louis XIV • Believed in divine right to rule • “Sun king” • Did not call Estates General one time • Strongest army in Europe • Expanded bureaucracy • Appointed intendants (royal officials who collected taxes, etc.)
Louis XIV • Financial minister: Jean-Baptiste Colbert • Mercantilist policies • New lands cleared for farming, encouraged mining and industry, built luxury trading • Fostered overseas colonies • Regulated trade with colonies
Decline of Louis XIV • Costly wars • Balance of power among Euro nations • War of the Spanish Succession • Revoked Edict of Nantes • Huguenots fled from France • Blow to French economy
Parliament Triumphs in England • Tudors work w/ Parliament • Believed in divine right, but listened to Parliament • Monarch = head of Church of England
Stuart Kings • James I • Claimed absolute power and divine right • Dissolved Parliament and collected taxes on his own • Clashed with dissenters (Protestants who differed from the Church of England) • Puritans- “purify”
Stuart Kings • Charles I • Absolute monarch • Imprisoned people w/o trial; taxed like crazy • Forced to summon Parliament • Sign Petition of Right- can’t raise taxes w/o Parliament’s consent • Signed, but ignored for 11 years • Trying to revive Catholic practices?
Stuart Kings • Charles I (still) • Long Parliament: lasted from 1640-1653 on&off • Tried & executed chief ministers • Charles I led troops into the House of Commons to arrest people • Civil War: 1642-1651 • Parliament won
Stuart Kings • Cavaliers (supporters of Charles I) vs. Roundheads (revolutionaries) • Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell • Skilled general- army composed of skill • Defeated Cavaliers; captured King by 1647
Stuart Kings • Put Charles I on trial • Condemned him to death • Shock waves through Europe • First time a ruling monarch had been tried & executed by his own people • No ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the law
Cromwell and the Commonwealth • Abolished monarchy • England = republic (known as Commonwealth) • Leader = Oliver Cromwell • Social revolution: Puritans • More strict • Education improved • Religious freedom for other Protestant groups- welcomed Jews
Stuart Kings • Charles II • Reopened & reestablished • Accepted Petition of Right • Religious toleration • Avoided mistakes
Stuart Kings • James II • Charles’s brother • Practiced Catholicism openly • Angered subjects • Feared he would restore Catholic Church
Glorious Revolution • 1688- Parliament invited William III of Orange and Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) to rule England • James II fled to France • Bloodless overthrow of the king