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Chapter 27 Rise of the Monarchies Section 1 discusses the powers of the French Monarchy Section 2 describes the English monarchy, the Magna Carta, and the Parliament. Section 3 analyzes the Hundred Year’s War Section 4 explains the role of the Holy Roman Empire Section 5 summarizes the unification of Spain
WHAT IT WAS Feudal System (Nobility and Serfs) Manors Church is all knowing Black Death Focus on the Afterlife Focus on Group; Fiefdoms HOW IT CHANGED Nobles (upper), Townspeople/merchants middle class, peasants (lower) Trade/money/lending/ banking/insurance/towns Questioned power of Church/more secular view of govn’t/life Celebrate life/Enjoy the Present/ Humanism Focus on Individual Transforming from the Middle Ages
Section 1: France • Hugh Capet chosen as King of France in 987 • Capet kings rule France for about 300 years • Louis VI, a.k.a “Louis the Fat” becomes king and increases power of the monarchy. • Grants charters for towns; wins loyalty of townspeople. • Gets rid of disloyal nobles; replaced by loyal persons of lower birth. • Stops raids by lawless vassals.
Philip II a.k.a. Philip Augustus, further increases the monarchs power • Makes Paris the center of government • Increases size of France through marriage and winning back lands lost to English • Philip’s grandson, King Louis IX brought peace to France and united the people. • Ends feuding and duels between nobles • Establishes a royal mint to make standard money • Creates a royal court to settle disputes
Philip IV, Louis’s grandson rules from 1285-1314; known as “Philip the Fair.” • Seized English fortresses in France that he felt were necessary for France’s security • Went to war with the Flemish because they would not let France control their own cloth trade • Set up a regular tax system; taxed the clergy • Establishes the Estates-General; an assembly of nobles, clergy, and townspeople that created a national Government
Section 2: England • 1042, Edward the Confessor, an Anglo Saxon prince was made King of England • Gave money to the poor and built Westminster Abbey (famous royal church where future kings and queens would be crowned) • Spent so much time in religious work that nobles became too powerful • Upon his death, a noble named Harold Godwinson took control of England
William the Conqueror • Duke of Normandy and cousin of Edward the Confessor, he claimed the throne was his because Edward promised it to him before he died. • 1066, William led an army of between 4,000-7,000 Norman knights across the English Channel and met Harold’s Army in battle near Hastings, a town south of London.
The Battle of Hastings • In October 1066, a daylong battle known as the Battle of Hastings ended the reign of the Anglo-Saxons. • In the battle, Duke William of Normandy, known as William the Conqueror, defeated King Harold of England, the last of the Anglo Saxon kings. • William did not want to kill the Anglo Saxons, he just wanted to rule them. The new group under William’s reign became known as the Anglo-Normans.
English resisted his rule at first. • William introduced feudalism- he seized the lands of English nobles and divided them among Norman nobles. • Norman nobles became his vassals and pledged their loyalty to him. • Kept many English laws and government practices. • Received advice from the witenagemot, now called the Great Council. • Created a census and survey of all lands for tax purposes (placed in 2 volumes called the Doomsday Book) • Brought continental Europe ways to England; Norman customs and French language; castles, monasteries, and monasteries in the French style. New skills from Norman weavers and other artisans.
Henry II • After William dies in 1087, England does not have a strong government until his great grandson, Henry II begins rule in 1154. • Rules England, most of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. • He was also a feudal lord in France where he owned more land than he did in England. • Restored order, forced loyalty from nobles and reformed English courts. • Circuit Judges, or judges who traveled throughout the country, brought law to all parts of England (made it the common law of England).
Established juries to settle quarrels over land; settle crimes. • Grand jury, or a group of people who present to judges the names of people suspected of crimes. • Trial jury, or a group of people who decide whether a person accused of a crime is innocent or guilty. (This replaced the medieval trial by ordeal.) • Henry believed everyone, including the clergy should be tried in the king’s courts. • Thomas `a Becket, Henry’s friend and Archbishop of Canterbury, disagreed. He wanted the Church to be free of royal control.
St. Thomas `aBecket • Thomas a Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in his own cathedral by four of the King’s knights because he often sided with the pope instead of King Henry who had appointed him to the position. • Becket’s murder enraged the common people who deemed him a martyr and they lashed out against King Henry which weakened the king’s power in his struggle with Rome. • Henry later compromised by allowing some clergy to be tried in Church courts.
The Magna Carta • After Henry’s death, Richard (the lionhearted) becomes king in 1189; more interested in his French lands and the Crusades. (Spent only 1 year of 10 in England). • Richard- taken prisoner in Austria, forced England to pay large ransom. • After his death in 1199, his brother John becomes king. Nobles in England become angry when he raises taxes and ignores English laws. • They refused to obey him unless he gave them certain rights. Does any of the above sound like a popular English Legend?
The Magna Carta (or Great Charter) was a document that limited the Monarch’s power. • The Magna Carta was signed by King John in 1215 in a meadow at Runnymede. • The king could not raise taxes w/o the consent of the Great Council. • Freemen accused of crimes were to be given a trial of their peers, or equals. • Limited the power of the king, and gave more power to the nobles and people. • First step towards democracy; not even a Monarch is above the law.
The Magna Carta I, King John, accept that I have to govern according to the law. So I agree: 1.Not to imprison nobles without a trial of their peers 2. That trials must be in courts; not held in secret by the King 3. To have fair taxation for the nobles 4. To let freemen travel wherever they like 5. Not to interfere in Church matters 6. Not to seize crops without paying for them …. and a lot more things too!!
Parliament • King John dies in 1216 and is followed by his son, King Henry III. • Henry is weak and allows nobles to rule England. • In 1264, Simon de Montfort, Henry’s brother-in-law becomes King. • Gives people a voice in government by letting them have representatives in the Great Council. • 8 yrs later, the new king, Edward I, calls for a meeting of representatives to help him make laws and advise him. Meeting is called the Parliament. • Later, Parliament is broken into 2 groups, Nobles and Clergy in the House of Lords; Knights and Townspeople in the House of Commons.
The Black Death • The Black Death, or bubonic plague, struck England in 1348-1349. • The Black Death was highly contagious and killed approximately one third of the population. • The Black Death helped cause the end of feudalism in England.
The Hundred Years’ War • The English and French entered into the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) because English kings were claiming they were to take the French throne. • England gains control of the seas and invades France. • Early English victories at the Battles of Crecy (1346) and Agincourt (1415); first uses of the English longbow w/sharpened steel tipped arrows and cannon.
Hundreds Year War: Joan of Arc • By 1429, most of France belongs to England. • Charles, the French Dauphin, or eldest son of the French king, was fighting the English. • Jeanne d’ Arc, or Joan of Arc told Charles God had sent her to free Orleans from an English siege. • Charles gave her an army, suit of armor, and white banner. • Within 10 days, Joan’s army had won. • With Joan at his side, Charles is crowned King Charles IV of France. • Joan is soon betrayed and captured by a French traitor and turned over to the English. • After a year in prison, she is tried as a witch and burned at the stake. • At a trial 24 yrs later, she is proclaimed innocent. • In 1920, the Catholic Church declared her a saint.
Results of the War • By 1453, the English were gone from France except for the port of Calais. • By 1500, the last of the French feudal lands were under the King’s control and France was unified. • England was weakened by war until Henry Tudor becomes a strong king. • Because so many commoners were killed, they become important because they were needed as workers. • They began to make demands and refused to go back to the feudal system. Many revolted, and were allowed to rent land and become farmers.
The Black Death • The Black Death, or bubonic plague, struck England in 1348-1349. • The Black Death was highly contagious and killed approximately one third of the population. • The Black Death was a major cause of feudalism ending in England.
Section 4: Germany • Otto I, 936 becomes king of Germany: • Strengthened power by removing disloyal nobles. • Turned to Catholic Church for help; made loyal followers bishops and abbots. • Made Emperor of Holy Roman Empire after he freed the Pope from control of Roman nobles. • Otto and his family control the Holy Roman Empire and Popes for the next 90 years. • Frederick I, 1152 becomes emperor. • Called “Barbarossa” or “red beard.” • Italian city-states, the Pope, and rich nobles banded together to force him to recognize their independence. • While leading the Third Crusade, he drowned in Asia Minor.
1220, Frederick II: • Raised in Sicily; ignores Germany. • Highly educated; spoke several languages; interested in science, supports artists and scholars, founded university in Palermo. • Adopts many Muslim customs. • Conquers land in Italy and Pope excommunicates him. • German princes break away from Frederick. • The Hapsburgs: • In 1273, German princes meet in the diet, or assembly, to select a new Holy Roman Emperor. • Named Rudolf, a member of the Hapsburg family. • His family rules for the next 650 years. • Maximilian I: became emperor in 1493. • Gained control of Flanders; (Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands); Expands control over Europe through arranged marriages with other countries’ monarchs.
Section 5: Spain • Under the control of the Moors (Muslims) from 711-1200s; pushed out by the majority Christian population. • Spanish kingdoms were united under the rule of Ferdinand and Isabella. • To control nobles, they sent royal officials called Corregidores, to govern towns; established special courts. • Catholic monarchs forced the conversion of Jews and Muslims, or they faced death or exile. • Set up the Spanish Inquisition to find heretics; burned, killed, or tortured thousands, mostly Jews. • Although a unified Catholic country, it became weaker: most artisans, merchants, bankers, doctors, and educators were either Jewish or Muslim. When exiled or killed, there were no trained Spaniards to replace them.