Terrorism 101 Who did it? Why did he/they do it? What did he/they get out of it?
September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks • Coordinated suicide attacks on the U.S. • 19 terrorists hijacked 4 airliners • Hijackers intentionally crashed: • 2 of the airliners into the World Trade Center, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within 2 hours. • 3rd airliner into the Pentagon just outside Wash, D.C. • 4th plane crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania after some of its passengers & crew attempted to retake control of the plane. • There were no survivors from any of the flights, plus many died on the ground. • Nearly 3,000 victims and the 19 hijackers died in the attacks.
September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks • Who did it?: al Qaeda, extremist Muslim terror group • Why did they do it? • Wanted to punish the US for: • Supporting Israel • Stationing troops in Saudi Arabia (location of the holiest sites of Islam) • Sanctioning Iraq • What did they get out of it? • U.S. did not change its policies re: Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iraq • AQ is still trying to end Western influence in Muslim countries and to implement laws based on the Koran (Sharia Law)
Madrid Train Bombings – March 11, 2004 • 10 simultaneous bombings on four commuter trains during the morning rush hour • 3 days before Spain's general elections • The explosions killed 191 people and wounded 1,800.
Madrid Train Bombings – March 11, 2004 • Who did it: • al Qaeda cell (small group of terrorists separate from the main organization, with a specific terrorism target), though no direct link to al Qaeda has been proven • Why did they do it? • Wanted Spain to stop supporting the US in the war in Iraq • What did they get out of it? • The party that won the election carried out its promise to pull out of the war in Iraq
Bombing of an airplane over Lockerbie, Scotland – Dec. 21, 1988 • Pan Am Flight 103 crashed as a result of a terrorist bomb. • The 270 fatalities (all 259 on the plane, 11 in Lockerbie)
Bombing of an airplane over Lockerbie, Scotland – Dec. 21, 1988 • Who did it? • Libyan government agent probably acting on orders of former dictator Muammar Ghadaffi • Why did he do it? • Revenge for several attacks by the US navy in the Mediterranean against Libya • What did he get out of it? • 8.5 years of jail (before being released b/c he had cancer) • Sanctions against Libya • eventually Libya took responsibility and paid each victim’s families over $5 million
Munich Olympic Massacre 1972 • Israeli Olympic team members were taken hostage & eventually murdered • 11 Israeli athletes/coaches & 1 West German police officer were killed • 5 of the 8 terrorists were killed by police officers during a failed rescue attempt
Munich Olympic Massacre 1972 • Who did it? • The militant Palestinian terrorist group Black September • Why did they do it? • Anger at the establishment of Israel and Jordan’s kicking the Palestinian Liberation Organization out of Jordan • What did they get out of it? • Anger of much of the world • All surviving Palestinian terrorists killed by Israel
Oklahoma City Bombing - 1995 • Attack on the Alfred Murrah Federal Building • Explosive-filled truck parked in front of the building • Claimed 168 lives, including 19 children under the age of 6, and injured more than 680 people. Most destructive act of terrorism on American soil until 9/11. • Blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings within a sixteen-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings.
Oklahoma City Bombing - 1995 • Who did it? • Timothy McVeigh, an US army veteran and American militia movement sympathizer • Why did he do it? • Angry at the US government for attacking the compounds of people who defied it (Waco, TX and Ruby Ridge, ID) • What did he get out of it? • Death sentence carried out in 2001
Sarin gas attack - 1995 • 5 coordinated attacks of releasing sarin on several lines of the Tokyo Metro. • Killed 13 people, severely injured 50 & caused temporary vision problems for nearly 1,000 others. • Attacks directed against trains passing through the area where major Japanese governmentbuildings are located.
Sarin gas attack - 1995 • Who did it? • AumShinrikyo religious cult • Why did they do it? Good question • Wanted to hasten the apocalypse? • Wanted to take over the government? • What did they get out of it? • Leader sentenced to death in 2004 (still to be carried out) • Cult membership drastically cut
Mosque Massacre -1994 • Extremist Jew wearing his Israeli army reserve uniform open fired in a mosque in Hebron in the West Bank • Killed 29 Muslims at prayer and wounded another 150
Mosque Massacre - 1994 • Who did it ? • American-born Jewish Israeli extremist Baruch Goldstein • Why did he do it? • He was an extremist settler who wanted to push Palestinians out of the West Bank • What did he get out of it? • Beaten to death by survivors of the massacre • Seen as a martyr(perceived as a religious hero for dying for a religious cause) for extremist Israelis
Iranian Hostage CrisisNovember 1979 - January 1981 • An angry mob overran the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 Americans hostage • Early on in the crisis the hostages were frequently paraded blindfolded in front of the press • Women and African Americans were released, but 52 Americans were held hostage in secret locations for 444 days
Iranian Hostage CrisisNovember 1979 - January 1981 • Who did it? • An angry mob of young Islamic revolutionaries who probably had help from the government • Why did they do it? • Angry that the previous government of Iran had been closely allied with the U.S. • What did they get out of it? • Attention of the entire world • Poor relations with the U.S. (still)
Mumbai Attacks 2008 • 11 coordinated shooting & bombing attacks across Mumbai(India’s financial center) killing 164 people and wounding at least 308 • Attacked train stations, hotels, hospital, a Jewish community center, movie theater, newspaper office, college and a major port. • Caused complete chaos for 3 days
Mumbai Attacks 2008 • Who did it? • Islamist terrorists from the Pakistani group Lashkar-e-Taiba • Why did they do it? • India and Pakistan are longtime enemies, still dispute their border in Kashmir • What did they get out of it? • 9 out of 10 men killed • Tenth man sentenced to death (carried out November 21, 2012) • Added strain to already poor India-Pakistan relations
Moscow Theater Attack 2002 • October 23, 2002 40-50 armed Chechen separatists storm a Moscow Theater taking 850 people hostage. • Three days later Russian special forces storm the theater after using a toxic chemical to subdue the terrorists • 170 people killed (all the terrorists plus 120-130 hostages) due to the chemical exposure, 700 injured
Moscow Theater Attack 2002 • Who did it? • Chechen separatists • Why did they do it? • Demanded that Russian troops leave Chechnya within a week • What did they get out of it? • All terrorists killed • Russia increased it military presence in Chechnya • Anger toward the Russian government for killing so many of the hostages and not providing nearby hospitals with the chemical antidote