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  1. Terrorism By Karra Gardin

  2. Thesis The true affect of the terrorist attacks on September 11 was not the physical impact it had on the country, rather the psychological transformation it inflicted on America and the World .

  3. Whatisterrorism? • United States Department of Defense definition: “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological” • Has advantages of military force with about a fraction of the cost • Terrorism is deliberate--it is well planned and has specific goals • Secondary source: Picture source:

  4. Food for Thought #1… • How does the 9/11 terrorist act connect to the previously stated definition of terrorism? • Al Qaeda’s biggest enemy and target is America. So, the purpose of the terrorist attacks were to inflict serious tragedy and devastation on American society. • The terrorist attacks had little to no cost, as transportation was taken care of by an airplane ticket and the bomb was carried onto the airplane. • Overall impact: These attacks altered people’s perception of security and whether they were protected as citizens of the United States. Therefore, the attacks on 9/11 intimidated the US government and society, therefore achieving one of the goals in the definition. • Secondary source:

  5. Connection to Pre-21st Century • Terrorism in ancient history • The earliest known terrorists were the Zealots of Judea. They assassinated Roman occupation soldiers and any Jews that they felt collaborated with the Romans. • During the French revolution, the French government instilled fear in its people and murdered thousands of French citizens. • Fast Forward to the 20th century • In October 1983, terrorist attacked the Marine Battalion Landing Team Headquarters at Beirut International Airport. Though 241 marines were killed, the true target was the American government. As a result, the US withdrew the marines from Beirut. Considered a terrorist success. • Though all three cases had the same effect (the killing of many innocent citizens), the reasons for terrorism have vastly changed. Before, the goal was political intimidation and terror. Now, the goal is to inspire a change.

  6. The day that changed it all Click on video to start

  7. Details of the attack Primary Source: Flight info of one of the plans that crashed in the World Trade Center

  8. One day’s impact on American history… • The numbers… • September 11, 2001, was the most devastating attack on the United States in American history. • 2,976 died on 9/11 • • 2402 people died in Pearl Harbor attack • • Altered people’s concept of what it means to feel safe in modern world

  9. Conspiracy Theories • Aluminum planes can’t penetrate steel structure of World Trade Center • The light aluminum material planes are made of can’t do as much damage as it did to the Twin Towers. • Planes didn’t make the twin towers collapse, bombs did • Speculation that the towers were blown down with explosives placed in secret locations. • Source:

  10. Food for Thought #2… • What was Al Qaeda’s role in the terrorist attacks on the Twin towers? Iraq involvement? Investigations after the attack linked the 19 hijackers directly to the terrorist organization Al Qaeda. In a statement issued by Osama Bin Laden, he said, “I have already said that I am not involved In the September 11 attacks in the United States. As a Muslim, I try my best to avoid telling a lie. I had no knowledge of these attacks, nor do I consider the killing of innocent women, children, and other humans as an appreciable act.” Iraq involvement? Immediately proceeding the attacks, rumors began that Iraq could have played a role in the attacks. But in a press interview, President George W. Bush stated that there was no evidence Iraqi president Saddam Hussein was involved.

  11. Strategy of Terrorism • The strategy of terrorism is to commit violence that brings the attention of the local populace, government, and world to their cause. • Target people they oppose to gain publicity and arouse a change, revolution, or political movement • Being that Al Qaeda’s biggest target is America, their attack not only gained them publicity, but brought the world’s attention to their cause and beliefs. • The true effect of terrorism is not the action itself, rather the attention the action gains as a result. • Bigger than the thousands that died from 9/11, the reason why 9/11 goes down as one of the most tragic days in history is because of the shift in thinking it gave people around the world. Suddenly, safety was at the forefront of diplomatic issues. • Many may argue that this desperation for protection from tragedies like 9/11 is what eventually caused the Iraq war.

  12. Food for thought #3… • What were the motives for starting the war in Iraq? Was it a direct cause of the events on September 11? • The US and UK governments felt Iraq was making weapons of mass destruction. • They felt this was a threat to their security. However, no weapons were found and it was concluded that no nuclear weapons were being made. • US officials also accused the President of Iraq Saddam Hussein of supporting Al Qaeda. • The anxiety over Al Qaeda shows how the war in Iraq has a direct relationship with the terrorist attacks on 9/11. Though no evidence of a connection between the President and the terrorist group was found, the fact that America was so quick to blame anybody for associating with Al Qaeda shows the feeling of fear in the American.

  13. The war on terrorism (aka the Iraq war) • America’s reasons for invasion: • Iraq financially supported the families of the Palestinian suicide bombers • The Iraqi governments human rights abuse • Wanted to spread democracy to the country • Connects to how America wanted to spread democracy in South America i.e. Mexican American war. But was the real reason we invaded Iraq to put an end to terrorism?

  14. A decadelater… • Navy seals shot and killed Al Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden May 1, 2011 at his compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan. In one of the most viewed speeches of Obama’s presidency, he delivered the news to the nation that one of the biggest terrorism masterminds of the decade was killed.

  15. Food for thought #4… • What does Osama’s death mean for this decade of terrorism? Has it finally come to an end or is it merely postponed? • Osama was the leader of Al Qaeda, which means its most influential person is gone. Terrorism as a movement will be greatly be affected, however, it is not dead. • “Clearly, this doesn’t end the threat from Al Qaeda and its affiliates, but it deprives Al Qaeda of its core leader and the ideological cohesion that Bin Laden maintains,” said Juan Zarate, a top counterterrorism official under President George W. Bush. • Source: • Acts of terrorism will still be threatening, however without the spiritual guidance and natural leadership of Osama, Al Qaeda’s only commander in the last 22 years, terrorism’s affect on national security will be greatly impacted.

  16. Works Sited Primary Sources • • Secondary Sources • • •

  17. Pictures Sited Pictures • • • • •